Journal of Economic Sociology <p><em>Ekonomicheskaya Sotsiologiya = <strong>Journal of Economic Sociology </strong></em>was established in 2000 as one of the first academic e-journals in Russia. It is funded by the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE; since 2007) and <a href="">Vadim Radaev</a> (Editor-in-Chief).</p> en-US (Котельникова Зоя Владиславовна) (Пашков Станислав Георгиевич) Sun, 11 Feb 2024 22:09:51 +0300 OJS 60 Scientific Conference “Nature-Based Solutions: What Russia Can Offer to the World?”, November 16, 2023, Moscow, Russia <p>On 16 November 2023, European University at St. Petersburg, with the support of the Andrey Melnichenko Foundation, organised a scientific conference entitled "Nature-Based Solutions: What Russia Can Offer to the World?" More than twenty leading Russian and foreign climate change experts from natural and social science shared their views on the potential of using nature-based solutions (NBS) as a means of countering the negative effects of global warming. The conference outlined the main areas in which NBS can be realised. The focus was on scientific research on present and past ecosystems, as well as models that offer scenarios of future climate development. Russian NBS initiatives, both current and potential, were discussed through the prism of historical experience and international practices. The conference consisted of five thematic panels and ended with a general discussion involving young scientists and graduate students specialising on various components of the Earth system. The first panel was devoted to discussing the role of climate science in building climate policy, as well as the place of the NBS among other measures to deal with global warming. In the second panel, participants discussed the existing tools needed for successful implementation of NBS. The third panel focused on the presentation and discussion of NBS already being implemented in Russia: Pleistocene Park and the Carboniferous polygon network. Finally, the fourth and fifth panels were devoted to discussing potential mitigation and adaptation of NBS that could be implemented in Russia in the near future.</p> Ivan Naumov, Marina Alieva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 “Performative Decisions in Conditions of Systemic Uncertainty”: How the US Federal Reserve Solved the Crisis During the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 <p class="text">Mitchell Abolafia's book offers an in-depth analysis of the famous Global Financial Crisis of 20072008. The book examines how the critical decisions made by officials of the US Federal Reserve System affected the operation of markets, the understanding of its participants of the full depth of the crisis, and the search for a way out of the current problem. The book delves into the history of the meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) and the US Federal Reserve, at which its permanent representatives tried to anticipate the conditions of the impending financial crisis and find a favorable solution. A systematic analysis of the ethnographic materials collected by Abolafia allows the reader to trace how the “managed” exit from the crisis was carried out by “market managers”, and how this process ultimately turned out to be deeply political, social and cultural. The book places a significant emphasis on the process of “searching for solutions,” which is defined by M. Abolafia as “sensemaking.” It is this, coupled with the mechanisms for creating and reproducing performative conclusions and decisions, that characterizes how the FOMC had from the very beginning to find new solutions to a situation that at first was considered as typical, based on the experience of past financial crises. The book pays special attention to mechanisms for coping with uncertainty, formulated in terms of “improvisation,” something that becomes uncharacteristic of the FOMC. In general, the book focuses on the logic of understanding of the market situation, the role of “signals” and “effects,” and the development of a system of argumentation by officials when making decisions. The main conclusion of the book is that the technocratic control that was traced in the work of the FOMC, over a number of events and “behind-the-scenes” actions, was largely ambivalent in nature, since the FOMC experts did not have a factual understanding of the financial crisis. The book argues that stable cultural patterns served as interpretations of economic changes, which in turn slowed down the process of rapid response. Thus, the successful navigation of the crisis and the implementation of positive policy measures were possible thanks to the overcoming by the members of the FOMC and the Federal Reserve of their entrenched ideas about the economy, as well as their willingness to respond to market expectations.</p> Stanislav Pashkov Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Balances in the Migration Theories <p>The paper aims to explore how the principles of the neoclassical approach, transformed into meta-theoretical foundations, have changed migration studies. The authors aim to evaluate the extent to which these changes have influenced the theory and practice of migration studies. Focusing its analysis on the works of authors often characterized as representatives of the “economic”/ “neoclassical” approaches, the paper aims to test the thesis that migration theories are characterized by fragmentation and inconsistency. In particular, turning to the analysis of the neoclassical theory, the authors will consider whether the transition from the classical approach in migration studies really laid the foundation for insurmountable contradictions between migration studies and theories of the distant past (late XIX - early XX century), the recent past (mid - late XX century), and the present (XXI century). The current analysis includes the works of A. Lewis, D. Harris and M. Todaro, V. Zelinsky, M. Piore, O. Stark and D. Bloom. The key questions of the analysis will be: Is there a connection between the works of these authors and their predecessors? What contribution have the analyzed studies made to the modern perception of migration? What was the engine of migration studies of this period, often hailed as a breakthrough by most critics (and is it truly a breakthrough)? The authors will be interested in whether something distinguishes the so-called "economic stage of migration research" (the works of representatives of which are presented in the analysis) from other historical stages of migration research? In addition, this analysis offers an assessment of the relevance of the results of migration studies at the end of the XX century for today’s research.</p> Pavel Lisitsyn, Andrey Rezaev, Alexander Stepanov Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Reassembling Economic Sociology: Methodological Traces of Actor-Network Theory <p class="text">Actor-network theory (ANT), originating as a methodology within Science and Technology Studies (STS), has provided a new theoretical impetus to other fields of social sciences in the 21st century. It has significantly influenced contemporary economic sociology, as well as urban studies, sociology of art and culture. In the first part of the article, the author traces the genesis of the ideas of actor-network theory developed by the French sociologist Bruno Latour as described in his book ‘Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory’. In contrast to conventional critical sociology which adjusts social interactions under overarching theory, the sociology of associations closely examines actors’ autonomous contributions to organising human and non-human assemblages. Following the structure of the book, the author describes the uncertainties faced by the sociologist and the subsequent steps to overcome them which altogether form the methodological approach of actor-network theory. The second part of the article provides an overview of contemporary works in the field of economic sociology that incorporate the theoretical insights of ANT’s. It includes Michel Callon’s perspective on the performative effect of economics as well as his heuristic concept of ‘market devices’. Consequently, the article discusses ANT’s impact on the research of markets material conditions developed by economic sociologists Donald MacKenzie, Fabian Muniesa and others within the emerging domains of Social Studies of Finance and Sociology of Valuation.</p> Vera Potapova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Regional Differences in the Access of Russian School Students to Distance Learning in 2016-2022 <p>Distance learning is one of the most discussed educational technologies in the world. While some researchers suggest that distance education contributes to reducing socio-economic inequality, other works show its consequences in the form of increased segregation. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition to this form of education turned out to be an alternative to traditional education, despite all the disputes about its effectiveness and consequences.<br>The aim of this study is to analyze the regional differences in students’ access to distance learning in 20162022, carried out in the paradigm of N. Hillman’s Geography of Opportunities. Using the quasi-experimental method of interrupted time series, the dynamics of differences in the coverage of students with distance learning in 20162022 were estimated on the basis of regional statistical reporting forms. Then, using the Pearson correlation method, the relationship of students' access to distance learning with socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the regions was analyzed. Further, the fixed effects of the pandemic period on students’ access to distance learning in schools in different regions were evaluated. The obtained results allow us to apply the concept of the geography of opportunities to the Russian context and confirm N. Hillman’s thesis about the existence of educational «deserts», where the educational opportunities of students are largely explained by a less prosperous context. The COVID-19 pandemic has served as a catalyst for the growth of existing differences. At the time of the lockdown in 2020, the readiness of schools to switch to distance learning varied greatly depending on the subject of the Russian Federation. In the most advantageous position were the regions described as educational «oases», where the growth of students’ access to distance learning was maximal during the pandemic. At the same time, some growth of this indicator in the regions that we describe as educational «deserts» was insufficient to reduce inequality. Thus, the application of the concept of the geography of opportunities to the Russian context highlights the potential of a decentralized system to reduce social inequality.</p> Alexandra Getman, Kseniia Adamovich Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: Case Studies and Options for Addressing Ethical Challenge (excerpt) <p>Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: Case Studies and Options for Addressing Ethical Challenges is based on the work that Prof. B. C. Stahl, Prof. D. Schroeder and R. Rodrigues were engaged in within the framework in a number of different projects. The main project that brought the authors together and demonstrated the need for case studies addressing ethical AI problems and ways to solve them was the EU-funded Shaping the Ethical Dimensions of Smart Information System (SHERPA; 2018–2021). This book provides real-life examples of ethical issues, along with discussions and coping strategies. The book is based on the case study method. Case studies are one of the best ways to learn about ethical dilemmas and gain insights into the various complexities and perspectives of stakeholders. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter of the book “Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction”, where the authors present their problem statement and outline the structure of their book.</p> Bernd Stahl, Doris Schroeder, Rowena Rodrigues Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Correlations of Compulsive Shopping with Anxiety and Depression in Russia <p class="text">The article is devoted to compulsive behavior among Russians during the period of economic sanctions. It argues that, unlike impulsive, compulsive purchases include not only and not so much purchases from the category of goods from the "checkout zone" of supermarkets, but also various manifestations of obsessive and auto-therapeutic consumption. The aim of the study was to search for correlations between the propensity to compulsive purchases with the severity of depression and the level of anxiety. 524 individuals (men  47%, women  53%, the average age of the respondents, M = 45 years) took part in an online research using the services and The following methods were used: "The scale of compulsive purchases" (E. Edwards), the Russian version of the "New scale of monetary behavior" by A. Furnham and S. Grover (adapted by T. A. Nestik, M. A. Gagarina), "The scale of depression, anxiety and stress" (DASS-21) and "The scale of sensitivity to anxiety" (ASI-3), and demographic indicators are also taken into account. The results of the survey showed that the tendency to compulsive purchases was associated with the age and gender of the respondents, as well as with their level of income and degree of religiosity. An analysis of the links between compulsive purchases, depression, anxiety and stress showed that people tend to engage in "binge" shopping when they are upset, feel irrational fear, panic, and a sense of emptiness and meaninglessness in life. The propensity for impulsive shopping therapy was found to be closely related to a person's sensitivity to anxiety (somatic, cognitive and social). The methodological problem of adopting the "Scale of compulsive purchases" to the Russian sample has been solved.</p> Alexander Maksimenko, Olga Deyneka, Darya Yurinova, Elena Charushina, Konstantin Boyarkin Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Who Stops Drinking Alcohol in Russia? <p class="text">This paper, based on a longitudinal study, examines the factors of the transition to abstinence in Russia in the period from 2006 to 2020. The study draws on the database of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a series of representative surveys conducted by the Higher School of Economics for 20062020. Based on the results of binary logistic regression, several groups of factors were identified that influence the transition of Russians to abstinence in the year T + 1: older age, female gender, belonging to “Muslim ethnic groups”, living in cities of regional subordination and rural areas, pregnancy and childbirth by women, a decrease in per capita income for women, loss of employment status, self-assessment of health as deteriorating if the initial health assessment was as poor and very poor, self-assessment of health as improving compared to the initial health assessment as average, the presence of teetotalers in the family. Higher alcohol prices, other things being equal, increase the likelihood of men becoming abstainers more than twice. The most important factors for refusing to drink alcohol are natural - age and poor health. The presence of non-drinking family members contributes to the rejection of alcohol consumption, while excessive drinkers can have the opposite effect. An increase in the proportion of non-drinkers in the family and in society can set patterns for a sober lifestyle as a social norm. Promoting the value of health in society will help reduce alcohol consumption in the future.</p> Yana Roschina, Yulia Belova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">Dear colleagues, We find ourselves at the edge of a new leap year (the seventh leap year for our journal). Normally, people expect something unexpected from it. Let us hope that this year will not bring any new troubles to us.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Are We Being Rational? Economics Perspectives on Sacred Natural Sites Commodification <p>Socio-economic and cultural changes due to massive tourism development have presented a new paradigm for the existence and the decision to use water. This study explores the embeddedness and expectation of actors depicted in the socio-economic dynamics of economic development and management choices for Bali’s Sacred Natural Sites (SNS) commodification. This study employs a qualitative approach with a case study design. From the findings, social networking can be classified into relational and structural embeddedness. The commodification of specific locations in rural areas is strongly related to spiritual values assigned to traditional sacred sites, associated with a specific religious tenet, belief, or place of worship in rural areas. Furthermore, the commercialization of holy water resources can be seen as a decision-making process, driven as it is by the anticipation of future economic benefits such as higher profits or the creation of jobs, as well as future cultural and social benefits such as the wish to advance tourism or protect cultural assets. Belief in the future value of economic benefit is constituted through the narratives actors use to make sense of a monetary situation and the everyday experience of using money. There may also be concerns about the environmental effects of commodification and ownership of it. Based on these results, future research must abandon static models that try to explain social order stability or social stratification reproduction. Although the past cannot predict decisions, past experiences affect actors’ capacity. Projective thinking is essential for generating viable options and choosing a course of action.</p> Amrita SARASWATY, MARYUNANI MARYUNANI, Sri MULJANINGSIH, Putu Mahardika Adi SAPUTRA Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Sociology of the Financial Crisis: Banks, Mortgage-Backed Securities and the Modern Financial System <p>This review considers the main ideas of the last Professor Fligstein’s book The Banks Did It: An Anatomy of the Financial Crisis. The book aims to analyze the financial crisis of 2008 unfolded in the mortgage securitization market in the US and its spread worldwide. The main question of the book is how the business model of mortgage securitization has been developed in the United States of America. The focus is on the structure of the banking sphere and their actions which eventually led to the financial crises. Fligstein applies a historical approach in order to analyze the business model of securitization formed in the mortgage credit market, which ultimately led to the global financial disaster. He underlines the vitality of the financial system for the economy as a whole and points out intrinsic ties between them. Within his sociological framework, the author of the book proves two major ideas. The first is that markets and the state are mutually interrelated and constitute one another. This means that the financial market is actually embedded in the sociopolitical context and shaped by the government’s actions. The second idea is that in order to understand the nature of the financial market it is crucial to analyze the business model emerged in the market. It may help forecast potential consequences of some particular economic activities and processes. The conclusion of the book is (following the title of the book) that the banks did it, although under the developing framework of mortgage securitization which roots are traced back to the crisis of the loans and savings banking model. Not only is the fundamental empirical analysis presented in the book, but also the solid economic sociology framework is successfully applied to the understanding of the financial crisis. This book is highly recommended to specialists in social sciences, as well as to the general public interested in financial crises and systems.</p> Egor Makarov Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of the Institution of Complaints in the Formation of a New Reality in Russia <p>The article continues the discussion initiated by D. Litvintsev about the role of the institution of complaints in Russian economic practice, in particular, in housing and communal services. Previously, O. Bessonova’s articles defended the position of the institution of complaints as an important and effective feedback signal that can be traced throughout the historical development of the distribution economy in Russia and the only legal channel for protecting citizens' rights in the field of service provision at the present time. D. Litvintsev refuted this statement and gave a classification of complaints, on which he based his argument. O. Bessonova’s attempt to show the inconsistency of both the classification of complaints itself and the argumentation built on its basis led D. Litvintsev to strengthen his denial of the importance of the institution of complaints and shift the focus of the discussion to the abuses and dysfunctions of this institution. This article analyzes the opponent’s methodology for constructing a classification of complaints and the vicious logical circle to which it leads. The fact is that the structure of complaints according to D. Litvintsev initially contains subjective and negative evaluations (erroneous complaints, impulsive complaints, denunciations) and on this basis a conclusion is drawn about abuses. At the same time, no statistics, no interviews with management companies, or examples of different types of complaints were given. To move to the semantic level of the discussion, the problematization formulated by E. Bogdanova was used: why administrative complaints were not completely replaced by lawsuits during the construction of the legal system and market economy, but on the contrary, were not only preserved but also expanded the range of their action in modern Russia? The answer to this key question, which forms the essence of this discussion, can only be found within the framework of the theory of distribution economy. Based on this theory, a forecast is made about the role of civil complaints in the transformation of the institutional system of Russia.</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Networks, Resources, and Isomorphism: Corruption from Organizational Sociology Perspective <p>Since the 1990s, corruption has been an object of study in economics, management, law, psychology and sociology. However, many empirical studies on corruption oftentimes ignore the normalization of corruption and its embeddedness in organizations. In this paper, we would like to draw attention to an alternative way of looking at corruption. We highlight three perspectives on corruption: social network analysis, resource dependence theory and neoinstitutionalism, which are the leading perspectives in organizational sociology. We argue that each perspective has a great potential for deepening our understanding of corruption thanks to their focus on organizations which are seen as a basic unit of corruption. Social network analysis explores interpersonal links between corrupted subjects and mediators and their role in corrupted networks. It also puts forward a number of predictors of corruption. Neoinstitutionalism focuses on environmental factors and explores the institutional conditions which encourage or discourage corruption, such as the level of competition, the quality of law and law enforcement, and other firms' behaviour. Resource dependence theory draws our attention to the resources available to organizations and individuals. It helps explore the relationship between power and resources on the one hand, and the field of available corruption activity on the other. Organizational sociology allows us to consider the positional, organizational and environmental factors of corruption. In doing so, it highlights the social embeddedness of corruption and its systematic and routinized nature. To illustrate our point, we review in detail several studies which represent different perspectives and methodologies. In conclusion, we compare the three perspectives, point at their respective advantages and disadvantages, and propose possible directions for future research.</p> Julia Berezhnova Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Expulsions of the Russian North: Exclusion Without Rights to Resources <p>Based on the materials of the sociological research carried out within the framework of qualitative methodology, the analysis of nature use practices and attitudes to them of the Russian citizens in general and the local community in particular is offered. The developed concept of expulsion assumes the systemic reproduction of the periphery within nation-states and is characterised by the low potential of local communities to influence the formation of development strategies in a region characterised by rich natural resources, as well as limited opportunities for its inhabitants to engage in meaningful activities and manage their personal life situations in a harsh climate and expensive living conditions. It is argued that modern practices of nature management represent consumer and quasitraditional strategies of development of the North. They do not contribute to the formation of sustainable strategies for the development of territories, despite the growing critical attitude of the region’s residents to the current situation and awareness of the deprivation of their right to own and dispose of land and natural resources. Expulsion is the result of the institutionalisation of prolonged and multiple practices of social exclusion. Institutionalisation is triggered by environmental management policies that ignore the interests of indigenous people and, as a consequence, make it difficult to defend the common interest of Northerners. It is characterised by an awareness of the injustice of this situation, reinforced by individual defence strategies and supported by five mechanisms: the mythologisation of the well-being of the North, the exploitative way of developing natural resources, the transfer of the costs of their extraction to the inhabitants of the region, the neglect of the interests of local communities, the promotion of migratory attitudes and the identity of temporary workers. The rule of access to benefits through the workplace, which has been preserved since late Soviet times, is not coping with the new challenges. As a result, resources are extracted in some regions and profits are channelled to other, usually more developed, regions. In the northern regions, where natural resources are extracted in this way, different types of dependencies are formed and impoverishment occurs.</p> Tatyana Lytkina, Tatyana Lytkina, Svetlana Yaroshenko Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Family-Work and Private Life of Women: Qualitative Changes in the Remote Working Environment <p>The article problematizes the relevance of identifying the relationships between modern remote employment opportunities for women and potential changes in their lives including reproductive plans. The hypothesis of the study is that remote employment conditions, due to their flexibility in the workplace and working time, allow most women to improve their work-life balance as well as plan their future family life. The 1 purpose of the study is to assess women’s opinions about expected or real changes in their work, family, parenthood, and personal spheres of lives in connection with possible or actual participation in remote forms of employment. The article summarizes the results of three Russian women’ surveys containing a monitoring question about the remote working conditions impact on the state of the main spheres of life (2018, N = 1922; 2019, N = 601; 2022, N = 589). Data merging was carried out using the VORTEX-10 program (N = 3112). The array is divided into three groups: (1) women with voluntary remote work experience before the pandemic; (2) women with forced remote work experience during the pandemic; (3) women without remote work experience. Women’ subgroups were additionally identified by age and the presence/absence of children under 15. The results were processed by translating the answers into a unified index system. The findings show the predominance of positive assessments of the remote employment conditions influence on the main respondents’ spheres of life: work, family, parental and personal. Respondents from different subgroups were unanimous noting the positive remote work impact on improving home life (“at home it will become more comfortable”), the health of loved ones, more time to communicate with children, as well as time for personal life, the latter manifested in the emergence of “time for myself” and “for cultural life.” At the same time, women who have voluntary remote work experience are two times more likely to evaluate its benefits for themselves than women who were forced to work remotely. Women with children under 15, compared to other respondents, more often rate the remote employment experience as positive (the difference is 25%). There is no significant connection between the ability to work remotely and plans to have children.</p> Natalia Tonkikh Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Cities in a World Economy (excerpt) <p>Economic globalization, accompanied by the emergence of a global culture, has profoundly changed the social, economic and political reality of national states, transnational regions and cities that make up the focus of Cities in a World Economy by Prof. S. Sassen. The presented book shows how some cities—New York, Tokyo, London, Sao Paulo, Hong Kong, Toronto, Miami and Sydney — have turned into transnational “spaces”. These cities began to have more in common with each other than with the regional centers of their national states, many of which have lost their significance. Moreover, the impact of global processes radically transforms the social structure of cities themselves—changing the organization of labor, income distribution, consumption structure, all that, in turn, creates new patterns of urban social inequality. Understanding how global processes are localized in national territories requires, according to Prof. Saskia Sassen, new concepts and research strategies. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter “Place and Production in the Global Economy”, in which the author raises questions about the content of the concept of globalization and the diversity of its types. The author reveals why she chooses the city as a place for empirical research on economic, political and cultural globalization.</p> Saskia Sassen Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Theorizing Digital Platforms: A Conceptual Framework for the Gig Economy <p>Contemporary sociology of work pays increasing attention to the study of the work experiences of individuals engaged in digital labour platforms. However, for a deeper understanding of the gig economy, this approach needs to be complemented by an analysis of the digital platforms as organizational structures and social actors. This article proposes a conceptual framework for such analysis, drawing on theoretical insights from economic sociology, institutionalism, and political economy. The role of digital platforms is problematized through the five key categories (organizational innovation, mediator, market infrastructure, private regulator, institutional entrepreneur), which are systematically integrated into the analysis. Digital platforms represent a radical organizational innovation built on technologies capable of effectively coordinating the activities of dispersed agents without requiring their spatial, temporal, or organizational co-presence. This facilitates the growth of businesses benefiting from the mediation of external workers and resources. The communication means facilitated by platforms gradually transform into systemic infrastructure, shaping the fundamental conditions for market functioning. With the ability to unilaterally establish “rules of the game” and exercise algorithmic control, platforms evolve into private market regulators, competing with the state. To strengthen and legitimize their power, platforms actively engage in the political process with the aim of social market reorganization and overall institutional restructuring. At this stage, the conceptual framework loops back to the idea that platforms represent an innovation, the diffusion of which must address the most acute social contradictions related to the role of platforms as mediators, infrastructures, private regulators, and institutional entrepreneurs. The article demonstrates how the proposed categories can be applied to the analysis of various gig economy issues.</p> Andrey Shevchuk Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><span id="page83R_mcid335" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*126.52px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987259);" role="presentation">Dear colleagues,</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid336" class="markedContent"><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*154.87px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.996185);" role="presentation">Recently, on November 14, 2023, the results of the Third Grushin’s Book Award were announced. A festive</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid337" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*169.04px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.970668);" role="presentation">ceremony praising the winners took place at the Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences (Shaninka).</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid338" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*183.22px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984775);" role="presentation">We are proud to inform you that a major award went to the book</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid339" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*348.78px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*183.22px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979335);" role="presentation">What Do We Know About Freelancers? The</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid340" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*197.39px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.962416);" role="presentation">Sociology of Free Employment</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid341" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*186.19px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*197.39px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985458);" role="presentation">(Moscow: HSE Publishing House, 2022) written by our colleagues doing eco</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid343" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*211.56px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00076);" role="presentation">nomic sociology Denis Strebkov and Andrey Shevchuk (both from the LSES, HSE University). Our sincere</span></span><span id="page83R_mcid344" class="markedContent"> <span dir="ltr" style="left: calc(var(--scale-factor)*36.14px); top: calc(var(--scale-factor)*225.74px); font-size: calc(var(--scale-factor)*12.00px); font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.98263);" role="presentation">congratulations to the win!</span></span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Seek Similarities, Not Differences: Five Eco-Social Relationship Archetypes <p>In the United States, the ongoing political divisions encompass a variety of issues, including environmental concerns. Environmental protection and efforts to address climate change have become central topics in political polarization. “Eco-Types: Five Ways of Caring about the Environment” by Emily Huddart Kennedy, an Associate Professor of Sociology at The University of British Columbia, aims to rectify misconceptions about people's relationships with the environment. Rather than focusing on why some individuals engage with environmental issues, Kennedy explores the place of the environment in people's lives, revealing that there is more than one way to care for the environment. She outlines a spectrum of eco-social relationships, resulting from a mixed methods research approach of the study that included two phases: qualitative interviews followed by a representative survey of the US population which was based on the insights obtained through the interviews. The empirical data allow Kennedy to describe the cultural ideal of the environmentalist and identify five archetypes of eco-social relationships: (1) Eco-Engaged; (2) The Self-Effacing; (3) The Optimists; (4) The Fatalists; (5) The Indifferent. Kennedy concludes that the challenge of environmental protection exacerbates political polarization in American society and hinders collective progress in addressing environmental issues. She emphasizes that to protect the planet and mitigate the ecological crisis, it is essential to recognize that not everyone cares about the environment in the same way, not should we be similar in our care for the environment; yet a shared concern for the environment should unite rather than separate us.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Concept of Touching Animals or Market? <p>For some time, pets remained relatively invisible in social sciences, despite their significant social functions. However, in recent decades, there has been a phenomenon known as the “animal turn,” marked by the development of anthrozoology. Research focusing on this subject has begun to emerge in Russia as well. The book under review aligns well with this trend. As is indicated by the title, the book has a clear economic focus. K. Krylova aims to analyze the function of pets, their work practices, and consumption patterns associated with animals within the family context. The researcher categorizes small-sized animals that require minimal time and effort for care as “convenience pets.” The market for such pets is steadily growing, with high demand. K. Krylova essentially views them as precarious workers who provide their human companions with a unique emotional environment. However, it is worth noting that the book lacks an economic analysis. The author classifies modern Russian society as a neoliberal culture that individuals must adapt to. She emphasizes the impact of stress resulting from the nature of relationships and employment in societies and economies of this type. Specifically, she highlights a group of professionals with unpredictable work hours who delay marriage or having children and are vulnerable to various psychological issues, such as insomnia, depression, and nervous breakdown. Many of them turn to pets as substitutes for family. The author takes the concept of animals as “living anti-depressants” to its logical conclusion. She also delves into the effects of fantasy monsters found in books, movies, videogames, and microformat pets and neototems. While her analysis seems plausible, there are some limitations to consider: she primarily focuses on young professionals in creative fields and exclusively on micro-animals. It's worth noting that larger dogs, for example, can serve similar functions.</p> Irina Ivleva Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Sexual Capital <p>Academic research on sexuality spans various disciplines, including sexology, sex research, critical sexuality studies, representations of sexuality in the media, gender studies, and sexual identity studies, among others. When it comes to the sociological study of sexuality, sociologists typically either engage in anthropological or narrowly sociological studies of social communities and spaces or conduct macroanalyses, as exemplified by Anthony Giddens in The Transformation of Intimacy (1992). In the 21st century, building on the sociological theory of Pierre Bourdieu, some sociologists have begun to develop the concept of “sexual capital,” viewing sex and sexuality as integral aspects of collective social life. This paper identifies and describes three sociological theories of sexual capital: “erotic capital” (Catherine Hakim); the theory of sexual fields (Adam Isaiah Green and others), in which sexual capital operates alongside other elements such as erotic habitus and practice; and “neoliberal sexual capital” (Eva Illouz and Dana Kaplan). Particular emphasis is placed on the latter theory, as it was introduced relatively recently. In the era of neoliberalism, where the precariat is constantly searching for opportunities in a highly competitive labor market, to feel masterfully becomes crucial . “Neoliberal sexual capital” facilitates this for several reasons: firstly, it boosts self-esteem; secondly, it implies dominance; thirdly, it can serve as a means to demonstrate social competence, and fourthly, it contributes to greater job satisfaction. Recognizing that discussions about sexual capital have only recently started to gain momentum, the author of this review paper presents these theories as competitors within the academic field of sociology.</p> Alexander Pavlov Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Жалоб много, но прибыль есть: злоупотребление сигнальнымиинститутами в российском ЖКХ <p>In 2022, a correspondence discussion on the challenges related to the functioning of the complaints institute within the housing and communal services sector in Russia was initiated within the pages of this journal. The discussion involved the author of this article and Olga Bessonova, a representative of the Novosibirsk School of Economics and Sociology. In response to the article titled “Complaints are not Gifts: Dysfunctionality of the Institution of Complaints in the Field of Housing and Communal Services ш Russia” (vol. 23, по 4, pp. 110—121), which critiques the effectiveness of the complaints institution from an interdisciplinary perspective, Prof. Bessonova published a response article titled “Ге Institutional Nature of Complaints in Market and Distributional Environments” (vol. 23, no 5, pp. 133—144). The aim of the present article 1$ to continue the debate and broaden it to encompass a discussion of the issues related to the functioning of both signaling institutions (complaints and profit) in the context of the apartment building management market. The author provides a detailed commentary on the specifics of the methodology used to study problems in the housing sector, and conducts an analysis of several indicators from open sources that point to the existence of false complaints and, consequently, institutional abuses by apartment building owners. Concerning the institution of profit, the author presents common socio-economic practices related to profit manipulation by management companies, including strict budgeting, fictitious employment, and affiliations with contractors. These practices lead to the dysfunction of the profit institution. The primary conclusion of this article is that the institutional environment itself, along with legal and regulatory institutions, contribute to the dysfunction of signaling institutions. They do so by promoting and effectively endorsing abuses by all market participants in the absence of genuine competition, which is essential for the complaints system to function as feedback, in line with the approach of Janelle Barlow and Claus Moller.</p> Denis Litvintsev Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 How Informal Intermediaries Influence the Inclusion of Cross-Border Migrants in the Shadow Labor Market <p>This article examines non-formal intermediaries providing migrant workers from North Korea and Central Asia with jobs in the construction sector of Siberia. It delves into the interactions between these intermediaries and cross-border migrant workers, Russian authorities, and entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it discusses their role in migration flows and the integration of migrants into the shadow labor market of Siberian cities. Based оп 13 semistructured interviews with non-formal intermediaries and representatives from the construction industry, we have highlighted the social characteristics of these intermediaries, their position within the horizontal networks used for servicing, employing, and exploiting migrant labor. It has been established that non-formal intermediaries support the development of crossborder migration flows of migrants employed in the shadow segment of the labor market. Upon their arrival in Russia, these migrants often take on “3d” jobs (dirty, dangerous and difficult), and their well-being and security depend significantly on the social capital of the intermediary who brought them to the country. These intermediaries exchange the social capital they have acquired over years of staying in Russia, especially their contacts with local officials and security forces, for a portion of the income earned by a labor migrant. In return, they facilitate interaction between migrants and the Russian state and business. The demand for non-formal intermediaries can be easily explained by the fact that many migrants from rural areas of Central Asia have limited knowledge of the Russian language and lack familiarity with the realities of life in large cities. While they are interested in working in Russia, they often lack the information and resources that an intermediary can provide in exchange for a portion of their future income. Another factor is the complexity of Russian migration legislation, which significantly increases the costs associated with integration. Intermediaries have connections within Russian state institutions, enabling them to reduce these costs for migrants, but again, in exchange for a portion of the migrant's earnings. Meanwhile, attracting migrants to the shadow segment of the labor market turns out to be beneficial for local “municipal political regimes” and provides them with various ways to collect fees for specific administrative or law enforcement services. Therefore, the complexity of legislation and the informal employment of migrants benefit all participants in the construction sector. Intermediaries and “municipal regimes” have the opportunity to earn income from this arrangement, while migrants have the chance to reduce the costs of legality, the cost of integration, and the overall level of uncertainty in the host country.</p> Dmitry Timoshkin, Andrey Voloshin Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Great Reversal. How America Gave Up on Free Markets (excerpt) <p>The book “The Great Reversal: How America Gave Up on Free Markets” offers a fresh perspective on competition in the USA in the first decades of the 21st century. Based on the latest research findings and international comparisons, the author demonstrates that competition has been declining in the US domestic markets. The lack of competition is attributed to political choices resulting from the lobbying and financing of political campaigns by large corporations.<br>These choices have led to the growth of market entry barriers and regulations that protect major market players, weaken antimonopoly regulation, and hinder the growth of small and medium-sized firms. The absence of competition also results in reduced wages, investments, and economic growth rates, along with increased inequality. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter titled “Why Economists Adore Competition... and Why We Must Also Embrace It,” in which the author discusses the arguments in favor of competition that exist in economic theory. Additionally, the author reviews the potential positive and negative consequences of increasing competition. This book is intended for students, lecturers, economists, and anyone interested in economic issues encountered by certain markets and antimonopoly regulation.</p> Toma Phillipon Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Consumer Socialization of Children and Adolescents in the Context of the Digital Society <p><br>This article showcases the results of a study on the formation of consumer behavior in children and adolescents within the context of digital society. The research problem lies in the lack of information about the specificities of forming consumer behavior in the context of the digital society. The research objective is to identify the nature and extent of the influence of agents of consumer socialization on the formation of consumer behavior in children and adolescents within the digital space. Bloggers are highlighted as specific agents of consumer socialization in the digital society. The theoretical foundations of the study include social learning theory and role theory of socialization. The concept of “consumer socialization” central to the study is thoroughly examined.&nbsp;Data collection was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 80 children and adolescents aged 12 to 16 from 27 regions of the Russian Federation. Interviews took place in cities such as St. Petersburg, Moscow, Novosibirsk, Samara, Kazan, Perm, Sochi, Surgut, Rostov-on-Don, and others. Data analysis was conducted using one of the thematic analysis techniques—Template Analysis, which allows structuring large data sets into hierarchically organized groups. The research revealed that parents, siblings, and peers actively participate in selecting and making online purchases of various gadgets for children. Parents often impose spending limits in the digital environment. Recipients of donations are often not bloggers themselves but friends or peers trying their hand at blogging. Bloggers currently hold authority among children and adolescents: the higher the authority, the more trust there is in advertisements within blogs. The data obtained from the research is planned to be used in future studies of consumer socialization and the development of specialized scales for surveys.</p> Anna Feigina, Elizaveta Aguzarova, Anastasia Korovina, Maia Rusakova Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Перспективы развития теории социального капитала <p>The aim of this article is to re-evaluate the significance and relevance of the conceptualization of social bonds. The next steps involve altering operational definitions and questionnaire design, which first requires a critical examination of theoretical knowledge, an attempt to construct a conceptual framework, and an understanding of research perspectives. There are five primary tasks within the article. First, it is necessary to provide a brief review of the works of four classic authors in this field: Pierre Bourdieu, Robert Putnam, James Coleman, and Mark Granovetter. This selection is based on the personal preferences of the author and does not claim to be exhaustive. The second task is to the predominance of the economic aspect of social capital in the existing social research. The third task involves highlighting the development of the concept of social capital in Russia. Despite the absence of Russian authors among the classics, it is unreasonable to only discuss the replication of theoretical approaches. The reception of the concept in Russia is both interesting and heuristic. The fourth task is to propose a dominant social conceptualization that moves beyond economic interpretations of social bonds, focusing not just on resource exchange and the symbolic dictate of reciprocal relations. Finally, the fifth task involves presenting an alternative conceptualization scheme in which the idea of the public good takes precedence over individual schemes aimed at optimizing personal social status. This scheme emphasizes the primary role of the public good in the development and growth of social capital.</p> Dmitry Rogozin Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, The journals “Sociological Review” and “Journal of Economic Sociology” have announced the results of the competition named after Max Weber. The winners are Elena Charnyaeva (Laboratory for the Psychology of<br>Social Inequality, HSE University) and Alexandra Shulkurlyaeva (Center for Socio-Cultural Studies, HSE University) for their paper titled “Witch as a Calling and Profession: An Analysis of Legitimation Strategies for Occult Services.” This paper will be published in the “Sociological Review.” The winners will receive an invitation to the Weber Conference at HSE University on September 22–23, 2023. Valeria Kalinina from Lipetsk State University secured the second place with her paper titled “Risk-Oriented Rethinking of Charisma.” This paper will be published in our Journal. Congratulations to the winners!</p> Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Suicides in Rural India <p>This review presents Sudhir Kumar Suthar's book addressing the issue of farmer suicides in India. The problem of farmer suicides in India is widely recognized by agrarian and rural scholars for several decades. However, the author disputes the proposed explanations of farmer suicides, which tend to primarily focus on economic factors. S. Suthar suggests his own explanation, somewhat Durkheimian in nature, which points to the deterioration of the social structure of traditional rural India. This decay results in the social structure's inability to support and safeguard rural community member, preventing them from committing suicides. The author provides a detailed analysis of the specific aspects that have deteriorated and how these changes have impacted suicides. He underscores the importance of public spaces and extensively describes how they are losing their function of strengthening social solidarity. He explores the decline of the traditional collective actions within rural communities and the erosion of family relations. The main catalysts of transformation, and also destruction, of traditional rural India are the market and the state, which are tearing apart its social fabric from different angles. The author thoroughly considers how market capitalist relations, as well as the state policies promoting rural modernization, displace and substitute traditional social bonds in rural India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alexandr Kurakin Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Utilizing the Linked Associations Methodology: A Case Study on Assessing Patron Satisfaction in the “Bar” Segment. Analysis of Method Effectiveness and Results Obtained <p>The article presents a research study on the catering segment known as the bar utilizing the author's constrained association method. This method, compared to other qualitative research approaches, offers simplicity in usage, minimizes the potential for misinterpretation, and allows for swift data processing after collection. It does not necessitate specialized equipment or extensive training, as it can be conducted using common communication platforms like Zoom, Skype, or similar alternatives. Furthermore, this method reduces the risk of distorting respondents' judgments regarding behavioral determinants. It yields detailed data that can be analyzed in various ways, such as association frequency, bond strength, and bond direction. A notable advantage of this method lies in its capacity to identify multiple types of associations with the stimulus word. These encompass semantic associations (between words or concepts), affective associations (between emotions and stimuli), and implicit associations that are not consciously recognized.<br>By employing the associative method, it becomes feasible to construct both an associative core and an associative network linked to the stimulus word. The utilization of this method has made possible the identification of key attributes that significantly impact customer satisfaction within the Bar segment. These attributes encompass a focus on alcohol; the atmosphere including elements such as music, interior design, and public ambiance; socialization and entertainment options for both active and passive recreation; pricing; and the establishment's opening hours. Furthermore, this method has enabled the identification of various motivations for visiting a Bar, including socializing, celebrating special occasions, networking, dating, seeking entertainment, indulging in gastronomic pleasure by trying new alcoholic beverages, relaxation, watching sports events, and temporarily escaping from personal difficulties. Moreover, it has shed light on interpersonal challenges that arise within Bar settings, as well as the primary risks associated with visiting such establishments and the factors contributing to aggressive behavior among patrons.</p> Galina Polynskaya Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 To Live with a Pine Wood or To Live in a Pine Wood: Gathering Practices and Space Appropriation (The Case of Karakansky Pine Wood) <p>The study focuses on informal gathering practices employed by different groups of nature management agents on the territory of Karakansky pine wood. Karakansky pine wood is a large forest area located within the borders of the Novosibirsk Region and Altai Territory. The practices, observed among social agents with varying degrees of connection to the pine wood (local residents, summer residents and city dwellers-tourists), offer insights into the mechanisms employed to solve the problem of general access to nature resources—a case akin to the tragedy of commons. The research draws upon observational materials and interviews with pine wood residents collected during sociological expeditions conducted in July–September of 2021 and July 2022. At the core of the appropriation practices lies the concept of “living with the pine wood,” which semantically encompasses both economic and ecological aspects. It highlights the inseparability of resource appropriation and contemplation of their present state and well-being, deterring a predatory mentality of “even the flood if after us” (posle nas khot’ potop, meaning “take everything as far as we are not dealing with consequences.”) Presently, the sustenance of the majority of pine wood inhabitants no longer rely significantly on wild mushrooms and berries. However, symbolically, the availability of forest gifts remains important, emphasizing the perception of nature resources as communal. The professionalization of gathering has been observed, with a distinct group of rural residents standing out as gatherers who sell forest products, collected in the vicinity of the points of sale, to urban dwellers visiting the forest for recreation. As the pine wood space is mastered, a network of transitive property relations emerges, manifesting in the concept of “own places” for foragers within the forest. These “own places” serve as individually mastered and appropriated sections of the forest, situated between private and communal property, and can be characterized as individualized common resources. Functioning as a set of norms and rules for nature management, these “own places” serve to maintain social and ecological balances in the pine wood, i.e. provide conflict-free access to a common resource while ensuring their sustainable utilization by curbing excessive personal consumption.</p> Лаврусевич Lavrusevich Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The New Localism <p>The New Localism is a book about cooperation among the state, business and civil society, whose joint efforts, according to the authors, create the genetic code of social change today. The book provides an analysis of the development trajectories of three cities: Pittsburgh and Indianapolis in the United States, and Copenhagen in Europe. Through an exploration of the histories of these cities, Bruce Katz and Jeremy Novak illustrate the work of the new models of development, governance and financing. In addition to examining the historical context of the emergence of new localism, the authors endeavor to predict its future based on its successes and challenges. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter of the book, “Reimagined Power”, where the authors consider the evolving dynamic of power. They observe a shift from the vertically organized commandadministrative system towards a web of horizontal relations that connect diverse sectors of society—state (public), commercial (private) and noncommercial—within local communities. The authors contend that power in the future will rest with problem solvers, thus challenging the conventional notion of power as the ability to coerce or effectively influence individuals’ behavior and decisions.</p> Bruce Katz, Jeremy Nowak Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Living Beyond Means as Reflected in Old Russian Proverbs <p>This paper has its focus on the popular discourse of Russian people regarding living on credit and consumer debt. Proverbs and sayings serve as empirical material containing the institutions that shape economic culture of a certain historical period. We studied the relevant sections of the collection “Proverbs of the Russian People” published by Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl in 1862. The identified elements of discourse are combined into three groups: (1) living within one’s means and what impedes it; (2) borrowing by households; and (3) private lending. The main empirical result is that popular discourse, which prevailed until mid-19th century at least, was blatantly critical of debt bond and the phenomena that led to it by undermining the financial viability of a household. These are, primarily, overconsumption, consumerism, and excessive impulsive spending. Some of the value commandments encourage financial prudence and self-reliance based on self-restraint in consumption and spending. Other value commandments attack the properties which erode the foundation for self-reliance and financial prudence. The principles of self-restraint and self-reliance resonate with the contemporary ideas of sustainable development. We argue that further research in the direction that we earmark might change the sign of the existing judgments regarding Russian traditional economic culture, which seems to be a topical and relevant matter nowadays.</p> Andrei Vernikov, Anna Kurysheva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Ecosystems of Choice: On Some Limitations of Rational Choice Theory and a Strategy for Overcoming Them <p>This article aims to revise and refine the concept of choice in sociology, primarily in the context of inequality studies. Despite the criticisms and known limitations of rational choice theories, alternative theoretical perspectives on choice often remain marginalized, especially in empirical studies. Recent advances in sociological theory and the sociology of culture and cognition allow problematizing this influential approach, and building a strategy to overcome its limitations. First, traditional approaches to decision-making presume a deficit, whereas excess often dominates within contemporary social life. Second, in addition to rationality and the actions of individuals themselves, choice is often associated with a certain amount of luck. In the studies of inequality, luck emerges as one of the key factors of choice, since the privileged and the unprivileged differ greatly in their ability to overcome or minimize the consequences of setbacks, and conversely to enjoy the fortunate events. A third argument for reconsidering the problem of choice arises from advancements in neuro-cognitive sciences. Numerous studies conducted in recent decades have shown that most of our decisions defy the principles of rational choice theory. The previously dominant computational theory of cognition has been replaced by distributive models that extend cognitive processes beyond the confines of the brain. Finally, contemporary sociological studies of culture and inequality turn their attention to the cultural processes that shape choice and their emotional dimension. The authors conclude with a strategy of going beyond atomic acts of choice to encompass the entire “ecosystems” of choice.</p> Dmitry Kurakin, Ilias Latypov Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,<br>Below is a brief introduction of the Journal’s latest issue.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Paths from Middle Class: Evaluation of the Poverty Risks for the Russian Middle Class <p>The middle class is usually perceived as a main supporter of innovations, source of political stability, and core consumer of goods and services. As a result, its members are traditionally supposed to have high human potential and make a significant contribution to economic growth both in certain country and all over the world, which permanently generates great interest in the issues concerning middle class. However, the main research questions have changed significantly over the last years. The experts both in Russia and abroad highlight the factors that negatively influence the position of the middle class. These are changes in labor market, price growth that outruns the growth of income, increase of tax burden and problems with access to public goods. During COVID-19 pandemic the income has fallen, the risks of unemployment have increased, and the costs of healthcare also have grown. The scholars in different countries underline similar tendencies: middle-class members, who already had to live in an ambiguous world, faced the risks of falling into poverty during the corona crisis. Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitor Survey, we evaluate the tracks of middle-class families during 2014-2020 and demonstrate that the problem of poverty affects a part of this social stratum every year. But the share of middleclass members with the income below the poverty line is relatively low and remains largely unaffected by the current corona crisis.</p> Alina Pishnyak, Natalia Khalina, Elena Nazarbaeva Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Social Сapital of Organized Crime <p>This review is dedicated to the analysis of the Russian translation (2019) of Mark Galeotti’s book The Vory’s. Russia’s Super Mafia (2018). The book addresses the historical background and current development of organized crime in Russia. Galeotti rejects to subject his material to any specific sociological theory and uses instead the descriptive language of economics. This review seeks to find a relevant theoretical context for Galeotti’s study of crime and criminality in Russia. The review consists of four parts. The first part provides general overview of the book. The second part explores the concept of criminality in its opposition to the state as an agent of legal violence. According to Galeotti’s, Russian criminals have lost the competition but have not ceased to exist. The third and the fourth parts discuss several hypotheses why criminality persist in Russia. In the third part the persistence of criminality is explained with the wide range of resources which include not only violence but social capital resulted from fitting structural holes. Having essentially lost an opportunity to convert violence into income, organized crime had to switch to the role of a mediator between demand and supply for illegal goods and services. In the fourth part of the review the persistence of criminality is explained by decentralization. The network closure around a leader can be seen as a factor of an effective concentration of resources. However, in the context of the competition between violent entrepreneurs, centralization becomes problematic since it hinders the diversification of syndicate’s resources, including its social capital, and makes it harder to act covertly.</p> Viktor Ledenev Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Labour Process Theory: From Taylorism to Algorithmic Management <p>This article provides an overview of the conceptual development of Labor Process Theory, from Braverman’s classic work to contemporary research dedicated to platform work. The article examines the theory’s conceptual framework: the concept of labor and its indeterminacy, the fundamental structural contradiction of the antagonism between capital and labor, and technology as an expression of this contradiction. The article discusses the four main branches of the labor process theory: the control/resistance paradigm, the theory of consent and hegemony, a postmodern approach, and paleo-Marxism. By doing so, it maps the development of the theory and its concepts. In addition to providing a general overview, this article offers an original interpretation of the labor process theory, which emphasizes the significance of knowledge in the labour process. This interpretation clarifies why the theory has become relevant again in the analysis of platform work and why it is potentially the most adequate framework for such analysis. The article argues that control over labor in the labour process theory can be understood in two ways: as control over specific technical work operations or as control over knowledge within the production process and access to the totality of production. The article looks at studies of platform work that use labour process theory and focus on information asymmetry as a way of control. It demonstrates that the relationship between classic labor process theory and platform economy research could be based on this second interpretation. We argue that the labor process theory can become the foundation that conceptually unites research of various types of platform work and allows for the description of elements of platform work outside the framework of platform employment.</p> Ilya Konovalov Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Non-Jural Labor Practices at Kuzbass Coal Enterprises: The Experience of Sociological Analysis Within the Historical Context <p>Kuzbass is the largest coal mining region in Russia. Ensuring safety and labor protection is a priority area in the activities of coal enterprises and the regional government. Safety problems are significantly subjective. The accident at the Listvyazhnaya mine in November 2021 revealed safety problems in violation of regulatory requirements in everyday work. The purpose of the article is to assess the scale and causes of labor practices that violate the legal rights and obligations of the parties involved in labor relations to ensure safe work and health protection in coal mining processes. The concept of non-jural labor practices coined by T. Zaslavskaya and M. Shabanova provided a conceptual basis for the understanding of labor relations as a set of labor practices at regional coal enterprises viewed from a historical perspective. Drawing on the evidence from the scientific literature and the media, the data from sociological investigations, the state and departmental statistics, the author analyzes the non-jural labor practices at Kuzbass coal enterprises from the beginning of the restructurings in the coal industry until now. The article argues that breaking the rules and ignoring socio-cultural norms that prioritize human life and health values have been institutionalized as a set of non-jural labor practices since the early 1990s and are well established nowadays. The recommended standards of labor relations are contradicted by the everyday management and existing labor practices. It is clear that the institutionalization of non-jural labor practices is caused by the management and employees. The key factors are focused on motivating owners and management to increase coal production and profit. Improper labor practices, deteriorating the quality of human capital, create institutional obstacles to the current and future objectives of innovative development of the coal industry and the purposes of the Kuzbass–2035 regional strategy. The main directions to overcome the effects of non-jural labor practices are outlined.</p> Olga Urban Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Power of Place <p>Numerous books and articles published in recent years argue that the human world today is so mobile, so interconnected, and so integrative that it is, in one prominent and much-repeated assessment, “flat.” Ancient and durable obstacles are no more, interaction is global, free trade rules the globe, migration is ubiquitous, and the flow of ideas (and money and jobs) is so pervasive that geography, in the perspective of more than one observer, “is history.” The notion that place continues to play a key role in shaping humanity’s still-variegated mosaic is seen as obsolete. This book ranges over natural as well as cultural landscapes to assess the role of place in enabling as well as obstructing the world’s march toward integration, mobility, and interconnection. For all the liberating changes that have already occurred, place of birth still has a powerful influence over the destinies of billions. For all our heralded mobility, the overwhelming majority of us will die relatively close to the place where we were born. For all the “flattening” perceived and relished by globals, the world still is dauntingly rough terrain for many more locals. From personal safety to public health, from compulsory religion to coercive authority, the world remains a mosaic of places presenting widely varying combinations of challenges to their inhabitants. What makes this power of place and how it can be mitigated are the interlocked themes of the discussion that follows. Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter “Globals, Locals, and Mobals,” in which the author considers the opposition of “locals” and “globals”, explains the motivation of “mobals,” and also argues why geography and “place” are still important concepts for understanding the modern world.</p> Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Value of Work for Russian University Students: The Logic of Justifying the Choice in Favor of Personal Gain or Social Utility <p>This article is aimed at theoretical interpretation of the value concept in economy, reconsideration of the traditional dichotomy of work values as well as at providing the empirical evidence of this new approach validity. It is common to distinguish between internal work values, which are mainly described as an interest in the content of tasks and the autonomy of their performance, and external ones, associated with the desire to get high salaries and achieve other benefits, exogenous to the work itself. However, a broad theoretical analysis of the value concept in the labor sphere, supported by the overview of the monographs by economists D. Throsby, M. Mazzucato, anthropologist D. Graeber and the works of economic sociologists, appeals to focus on the dichotomy of opportunities for obtaining high earnings or social utility by the employee involvement in work as well as the problem of reverse causality between these characteristics of work under the conditions of modern capitalist economy. The data was collected in December 2021 and included 38 interviews with students and graduates of Russian universities aged 18–24 years. The empirical part begins with an analysis of the value conflict that arises while making choice between individually beneficial and socially useful areas of employment. The desire to pursue purely personal interests in the sphere of paid employment matches with the market logic of choosing a future profession, analysis of supply and demand in specific areas of employment, clear ideas about the desired level of income as well as expansive self-development strategies based on expert advice and including multiple employment, frequent change of employers and firms, desire to devote time to individual “operational activities” as a means to develop hard skills. Orientation towards social utility includes a setting for long-term and gradual self-development within the professional sphere, its conscious choice as a “vocation”, a nonpossessive attitude towards money received for work, an active desire to achieve higher levels of professional knowledge and skills as well as plans to acquire socially recognized status in the future. It was also revealed that the orientation towards social utility is justified by domestic logic, rooted in the system of parental or own family relations, and has a gender specificity. It was reflected in the author`s concept of the anchors of utilityoriented approach to work.</p> Anita Poplavskaya Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>.</p> Copyright (c) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Paid Educational Activities for Preschoolers in Russian Cities with Over a Million People: The Interrelation between Income Level and Parental Investment <p>In many Russian families, the educational differences between preschoolers are mainly formed outside of the municipal kindergartens through participation in paid classes, which have become increasingly popular in recent years. This created a new problem of increasing inequality in early childhood education (ECE), as not all parents can afford to pay for extra educational activities. This study investigates the effect of income level on parental investment in ECE by examining the relationship between family income and the educational strategies chosen by parents. The study involved 260 families with children aged 3 to 7 years old, living in fifteen Russian cities with populations over one million people. The families were divided into three income brackets. To identify the correlation between the family socio-economic situation (SES) and expenditure, the study assessed the money spent on the children's preschool education, including kindergarten and for extra educational activities. The study also examined the types of extra educational activities for preschoolers, and identified the motives for parental decisions. The families with the lowest income invest significantly fewer financial resources in ECE than the families with low and middle incomes. However, the analysis of the parental preferences and motives in ECE did not confirm that children from poor families are less involved in centrebased classes. Financial constraints lead poorer parents to find other options to provide competitive education. They mostly seek help from family members in conducting ECE, and conduct more ECE activities at home. Furthermore, disadvantaged families try to find the most affordable activities, i.e. cheaper classes at kindergartens or municipal cultural centres.</p> Yulia Seliverstova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Main Ideas of the Economic and Sociological Concept of Emotions by Eva Illouz. Reply to Nina Lyubinarskaya’s Review <p>This work is a commentary on the review of N. Lyubinarskaya [Lyubinarskaya 2022] on the Russian translation of the book by E. Illouz Why Love Hurts? [Illouz 2020]. In her review, N. Lyubinarskaya highlights important and interesting aspects of the book under review. However, due to the fact that the sociology of emotions is a relatively new discipline, it is likely that most readers are not familiar with other works by Eva Illouz. In this note, we overview the general logic of her concept of the constitutive relationship of capitalism and emotions. According to Illouz, economic systems (or “modes of production”) form cultural and historical matrices (for example, traditional society or capitalism in its various historical forms) that shape models of relations between individuals within social groups , as well as the relationships of individuals to themselves in the sense of self-identification. These social models of relations in the processes of socialization are internalized and become “internal”, “their own” emotional-existential factors of the psyche. Each cultural matrix constitutes its own unique conditions for the realization of feelings and emotional relationships (the ecology of emotions), making the content of emotions specific to a historical and even biographical (the architecture of emotional choice) context. Illouz’s research highlights the radical difference between emotions, particularly love and related positive and negative experiences, between traditional, early capitalist, and modern capitalist societies. She especially reviews the effects of the latter in the context of the sexual revolution of the 1960s and the surge of feminism in the 1970s. She pays special attention to the analysis of the destruction of traditional identification systems as a background to the commodification of emotions (turning them into ‘emodities’). Finally, she discussed that the formation of emotional capitalism in which “positive psychology” establishes a sort of a market dictatorship of happiness (‘happycracy’).</p> Pyotr Kondrashov Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A Book on Economics for Sociological Reading <p>The book under review was first published in 2019 and could not help but draw attention from the academic community as a form of the intra- and interdisciplinary “self-reflection” for the two world “star” economists who received the Nobel Prize in 2019. Russian researchers had mixed reactions to the book, noting the development of tools to increase the efficiency of foreign aid to poor countries (see, e. g.: [Banerjee, Duflo 2007; 2009; Banerjee, Duflo, Glennerster, Kinnan 2015]); an issue topical in light of the number of the developing countries’ debts “forgotten” by the Russian state (see, e. g.: [Voronov 2020]). However, the book received positive reviews from both international and Russian readers. The former appreciated its accessible style, and the focus on applied solutions for the urgent socialeconomic global problems aimed at creating a more humane world. They, however, also, noted a lack of critical assessment of the ‘capitalist worldview’, ignorance of certain issues (for instance, shadow economy), overly bold comparisons and generalizations, and vague practical recommendations (see, e. g.: [Crabtree 2019; Ball 2020; Kumar 2020; Oommen 2020; Srivastava 2020]). Russian readers agreed with these remarks, but also noticed the regrettable mismatch between the scale and the regional coverage of the book, its reliance on facts and the fight against stereotypes, and the authors’ ignorance of the Russian “case” and political-economic generalizations, and also questioned the authors’ estimates and forecasts under and after the pandemic (see, e. g.: [Meshcheryakova 2020; Kushnarev 2021]). For the sociological reader interested in the current Russian realities, the review summarizes the main themes of the book as the status of economics and economy, types of social polarization, myths and facts about migration, opportunities and limitations of free trade, socialpsychological mechanisms of economic processes, uncertainty of economic growth, and ways to mitigate poverty. However, it is noted that it seems that one cannot speak of a victory over or even a tense struggle against poverty today due to the actualization of the militaristic-geopolitical agenda.</p> Irina Troktsuk Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Valuation of Online APE Courses: The Case of Online Consumer Reviews on the Educational Platform <p>and the concept of lifelong learning has become increasingly popular in society. At the same time, the use platforms as a new economic organization is growing. It leads to a contradiction between the services’ standardization and the platform’s aim to retain consumers. This has raised the issue of determining the value of online courses as singular goods in terms of quality criteria. The goal of this research is to determine the value of online APE courses for students. A mixed methods research strategy was used, including content analysis of online consumer reviews (N = 300) on the Skillbox website and semi-structured interviews with learners (N = 16). The research found that, in terms of standardization, the singularity of the product is not in its functional utility (core area), but in the additional services (peripheral area) provided by the platform, according to J.-J. Lambin's multi-attribute product model. As a result, three groups of consumers were identified: promiscuous learners; selective learners focused on additional services (peripheral area) provided by the platform; and selective learners focused on the functional utility (core area) of the educational product. The findings can be applied to the development of digital products on the e-learning market and provide a classification of consumers based on both course selection logics and the top-priority criterion of the product in a platform economy.</p> Darya Dubinina, Ellina Manukyan, Anastasia Marchenko, Ekaterina Pilipenko Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Subjective Well-being of Rural Dwellers in Russia: Factors and Their Significance <p>The traditional policy of rural development in Russia has focused on bridging the gap between urban and rural areas by improving infrastructure and settlements in rural areas, but has not taken into account the perspectives and priorities of rural dwellers regarding their lives. Using data from The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 2012 to 2019, this study seeks to understand rural residents’ priorities for rural development by analyzing their assessments of their own wellbeing and the factors that influence it. The study uses data discrimination form factor analysis to obtain multicomponent regressors; a logit model is constructed to determine the significance of selected factors. The study finds that factors such as health, education, person's economic condition, and availability of utilities in the house have a significant positive impact on rural residents’ life satisfaction. However, the most dominant factor is “job satisfaction”, which includes the attitude of rural residents to (1) pay and working conditions and (2) opportunities for professional growth. The study also finds, unexpectedly, a nonlinear impact of economic condition on life satisfaction in rural areas, and a decrease in income returns. Additionally, the study identifies a group of rural residents who despite having minimal material goods, evaluate their lives as quite satisfactory. The study concludes by suggesting adjustments to the funding structure of the State Program “Integrated Rural Development” by increasing funding for measures to promote rural employment and expanding the focus to the non-agricultural sector of the rural economy.</p> Valeriy Saraykin, Yulia Nikulina, Renata Yanbukh Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The Right to the City (excerpt) <p>The Right to the City is an idea and a slogan first proposed by French philosopher Henri Lefebvre in his 1968 book, Le Droit à la ville. In this book, Lefebvre critically analyzes thoughts and activities related to urbanism and calls for action to reclaim the city as a ‘to-created space’—a place for life detached from the growing and negative effects, evident in the last two centuries, of commodification and capitalism on social interaction and the rise of spatial inequalities in cities worldwide. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter “Industrialisation et urbanisation” (“Industrialization and Urbanization”). It traces the reasons for the crisis of the city—competitive capitalism and industrialization—in their theoretical and practical dimensions. Lefebvre also distinguishes three periods of the destruction of the city, and discusses the trends that lead to the renewal of the city in the managed society of consumption. He predicts serious dangers and raises the issue of the city society as a political one.</p> Henri Lefebvre Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Ethical Consumption as a Sphere of Russian Civil Society: Factors and the Development Potential of Market Practices <p>The paper explores the concept of “voting for a better world with your wallet,” which refers to the idea of using consumer choices to effect change. The study conducts a synthesis and systematic review of existing scholarship on this topic and develops hypotheses promoting a holistic model of ethical consumer choice. The model takes into account consumer characteristics, product characteristics, and the environment, as well as two facets of ethical consumer identity: civic (concern for the common good) and consumer (focus on personal benefit). The study uses representative survey data from 2014, 2017, and November 2020, the year of the pandemic (N = 2000 in each case), to understand the dynamics and characteristics of different types of consumers who hold different positions on ethical purchasing (‘actual’, ‘potential’, and ‘indifferent’). Using regression analysis, we examine the relationship between specific factors and a consumer’s likelihood of of being included in various types of ethical consumers. Special attention has been paid to identifying a comparative role of proenvironmental (prosocial) and individualistic aspirations. We found that the concern for the common good has the strongest relationship with the likelihood of actually making ethical purchases, although the relationship with personal benefit is also significant. The engagement in ethical consumption practices is positively related to the diversity of Russians’ traditional prosocial activities outside of the consumption sphere. It has been shown, however, that by “voting with your wallet,” Russian civil society undergoes in-depth development, and also grows by attracting new participants as a result of easy access to practices. The number of ethical consumer is growing and their quality is changing, with the key change associated with the younger generation coming onto the scene. The paper substantiates the conclusion that the development of independent activity exercised by ethically-minded consumers signals the transformation of civil society, its tools, and spheres of influence. However, the realization of the consumer potential of citizens as agents of change is highly dependent on the available possibilities related to the activity of other stakeholders (businesses, NGOs, and authorities).</p> Marina Shabanova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, as we begin the new year of 2023, we hope that this year will be less demanding for us than the past.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 24th Yasin (April) International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, April 4–14, 2023 <p>.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Why Do Women Still Quit Their Jobs? Women’s Employment Transitions in the European Context <p>Vast amounts of research are devoted to the ‘motherhood penalty’: discrimination in hiring, salary, and leadership opportunities for working mothers relative to childless women. For a significant number of women, ‘employed’ is not a continuous uninterrupted status but rather a type of activity that can be paused for an indefinite period in order to pursue other life goals, such as raising a family. A large proportion of women do not return to the labour market after giving birth, and others switch to part-time or stay out of work for a long time before returning. Using data from the first and the second waves of the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) for Austria, Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Hungary, and Russia, I explore which factors influence the probability that women employed fulltime will go part-time or withdraw from paid work (i. e., become inactive). I analyse the sample of 1446 childless women employed full-time during the first wave of the study. This paper focuses on women’s individual characteristics and their employment as well as contextual factors. The results show that, apart from the transition to motherhood, the factors that influence women’s participation in the labour market are traditional gender ideology and lack of state support.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alexandra Lipasova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Institutional Nature of Complaints in Market and Distributional Environments <p>This paper is based on the polemics with the author of the article “Complaints are not Gifts. Dysfunctionality of the Institution of Complaints in the Field of Housing and Communal Services in Russia.” The main focus of polemics is the conceptualization of the subject of research. The main thesis of “Complaints are not gifts” follows the widely accepted view that as a feedback mechanism, the institution of complaints is ineffective. The common mistake in the study of complaints is narrowing the consideration of complaints to their socio-psychological aspects, appealing to behavioral characteristics and the concept of ‘Russian mentality,’ and ignoring the very institutional nature of complaints as the most important element of the hierarchical system of management. The “Complaints are not gifts” fails to eschew this blunder. In the present article, I will reveal the essential characteristics of the institution of complaints, and explain why this institution has been rationalized and supported by the authorities throughout the historical development of the Russian socio-economic system. I will also review the complaints that formed the empirical data for the “Complaints are not gifts” article. These complaints are used by the Russian housing and utilities management companies as a template if they choose a competitive market strategy of complaining against their clients. Finally, I will review the prospects for the institution of complaints in Russia. Apart from the general expansion of the institution of complaints, we can expect its digitalization and the creation of state portals in the regions for receiving complaints. These will not, however, change the institutional nature of complaints. The institutional environment in Russia is gradually moving away from the market forms of governance to the system of “razdatok”, or central distribution system characteristic of the USSR period. Considering this, and also the fact that the state segment makes up to eighty percent of the entire Russian economy today, private utility service companies will have to adapt more actively to the experience of using customer complaints to survive in this environment.</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Rethinking Money <p>In his book The Social Life of Money, Nigel Dodd, a professor at the LSE, presents the results of his research on money. The main purpose of the book is to reconsider the nature of money, especially its social nature. The author explores the possibilities to change society by rethinking the existing economic, sociological, philosophical, psychological, anthropological, linguistic and other social science approaches to understanding money. Referring to the history of the origin of money, Dodd showed how the theories of the invention of money proposed by K. Menger, B. Laum, G. Simmel, M. Mauss, F. de Saussure, M. Agliette, and A. Orléan, shape our ideas about money and the ways of its social construction. Based on classical economic theories, the author challenges the role of money in the reproduction of social conflicts and inequality, as well as the relationship of money with credit and debt. Dodd describes how the transition from the perception of debt as a moral obligation to debt as a monetary obligation took place and the consequences of this transition. Writing about various aspects of the functioning of money, Dodd notes that for the completeness of the analysis it is important to understand how people solve the problem of managing an overabundance of money and how this determines the cultural aspects of the existence of money. He explains his sociological view on money and applies it to the analysis of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and its consequences. The author discusses the sources of the crisis, describes theoretical perspectives that underpin the previous and existing financial systems, and suggests ways to possible positive transformation of money in the future by explaining several monetary utopias. The Social Life of Money is an example of thorough analytical and methodological accuracy and profound research on money in sociology. This book can be of high value both for experts whose research is focused on money and for anyone interested in the development of social theory today.</p> Daria Moiseeva, Olga Kuzina Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 On Thin Ice: Alcohol Promotion by Sport Resources <p>Commercialization and the subsequent transformation of sports into an industry contributed to the increasingly conspicuous introduction of alcohol into the daily routine of athletes and fans. Under the current conditions, the partnership of sports organizations with the alcohol industry has become a legitimate phenomenon and has firmly rooted in the life of society, increasing social risks. At the same time, in public consciousness and scientific opinion, sport is still associated with health and constructive social behavior, but this value is increasingly being questioned. The authors of the peer-reviewed book Sport, Alcohol and Social Inquiry: A Global Cocktail (research in the sociology of sport) criticize the current situation and speak out against legislative easing for alcohol in sports to keep its true value. The monograph is an example of a sociological analysis of modern contradictions in the field of the promotion of alcoholic products by means of sports (at various levels of the sports hierarchy in an explicit or latent form). The authors demonstrate the clash of economic, political, and cultural aspects of the interaction between the state, the alcohol industry, fan groups, sports communities, and public health advocates based on protecting certain interests. The text presents vivid examples of the introduction of alcohol into the sphere of organizing sports (including big sports). The book covers a wide geography, representing a collection of cases on the “alcoholization of sports” in the United States, Brazil, Australia, France, Sweden, New Zealand and Japan.</p> Yuliya Belova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Young Russians’ Pathways to Marriage: The Role of Networks <p>How do young Russians get married? With the second demographic transition and the "great transformation", individualization and marketization of romantic relationships, the pathway to marriage seems to be reminiscent of a job search. The latter, according to Granovetter, is characterized by "the strength of weak ties". But if the labor market implies mobility and career building, marriage logic denies them—scarcely do people get married in order to get divorced and build "marriage careers". This controversy makes Granovetter's theory ambivalent in the marriage search field. So, this paper aims at uncovering the role weak and strong ties play in young Russians' marriage trajectories. 16 biographic interviews were conducted and concentric sector method and thematic coding were used. Although weak ties, especially those on Internet, showed their importance at the first meeting stage, yet further pathway to marriage required kinship network overlap and moving from weak to strong ties. Kinship ties were also a source of social capital, giving information about the future spouse. Network overlap, however, could be complicated by negative relationships one had in their parental family. This implies “path dependency”: if strong ties had not been built in one’s parental family, it would be difficult to build them in a new affinity network. As for the marriage celebration stage, once again kinship networks and bonding social capital played an important role with the latter having been converted into financial resources. So, having begun the analysis with Granovetter's theory, we then moved to network analysis in an anthropological manner, paying specific attention to the strong tie formation process and kinship networks.Keywords: networks; embeddedness; pathways to marriage; network approach; weak ties; strong ties; social capital; marriage market.</p> Polina Alekseeva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Job Seekers Market and the Frictions of Finding Jobs on Online Platforms <p>The article examines the state of the labor market of job seekers and frictions that prevent effective search behavior on modern online platforms. Matching is increasingly beginning to depend on the specifics of human capital and modern digital technologies. In general, job search on the Internet includes both a traditional set of problems (segmentation and marginalization of the labor force) and produces new ones, which, first of all, include information and communication interference and distractions, united in the literature by the term search frictions. In the theoretical part of the article, based on a review of existing literature, the problems that complicate the job search are analyzed. Unresolved problems contribute to the formation of a “spot” labor market, which accelerates the inflation of education, wages and the struggle for talent. At the same time, the (online) labor market is growing. While not in crisis, its condition can be characterized as “sluggish”, which means that a long job search and selection of personnel are coupled with a large number of fictitious and unsuitable offers from both sides. The second part of the article contains the results of the author's sociological study of the features of the functioning of the Russian online labor market for job seekers (by the method of statistical research of a structured array of cv data provided by the state service “Jobs in Russia”). The analysis showed that relying solely on the significant scale of the online job search site does not guarantee citizens assistance in finding a job. The low quality of the platform, the pronounced regionalization of the market, the existence of discriminatory practices (gender-based job search strategies, high wage dispersion), and the lack of a job search culture, on the one hand, are consistent with the labor market development tendencies in Western countries. On the other hand, a lot of friction narrows the chances of successful employment for job seekers and leads to a general stagnation of the market. The studied state platform, despite the presence of young and highly educated candidates, fully meets all the signs of a “sluggish” and weak labor market, in which “imperfect” categories of candidates dominate with a focus on “simple” signals to the employer, and as a result, on a non-optimal job search result.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Irina Sizova, Maya Rusakkova, Anastasia Alexandrova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Economic Theory of Woman’s Dress <p>This is a Russian translation of an essay that Thorstein Veblen wrote in 1894. The essay describes ironically the social practices around the acquisition and wearing of the woman’s dress. Many references are made to this interesting source, but we have not been able to identify its accurate translation into Russian and decided to fill the gap. “The Economic Theory of Woman’s Dress” was written for Popular Science Monthly. Like some other papers of Veblen, this one got published in a magazine carrying popular science content to the general reader, which does not preclude its academic significance. The essay has subsequently been republished in reputable volumes. Duke University Press generously granted the rights for a Russian language translation for the Journal of Economic Sociology from a book released in 2000. Veblen hasn’t attached an abstract to his original essay, perhaps in line with the policy of the magazine. This foreword from the translators does not intend to cover all the original author’s ideas and messages. “The Economic Theory of Woman’s Dress”, just like the classical “The Theory of the Leisure Class” from the same author, describes the customs of a particular social strata, including the custom to spend wastefully and conspicuously in order to signal pecuniary strength within a given social environment. The conspicuous expensiveness and novelty of the woman’s dress and the related adornments serve precisely that purpose. Veblen shows the line of progress from the primitive efforts of the savage to beautify himself with gaudy additions to his person to a complex dress of a contemporary woman of upper classes. The three cardinal principles of the theory of woman’s dress, nevertheless, remain relevant. Without a sophisticated wording typical of many armchair scholars, Veblen uses clear and forceful language to explain the woman’s dress as an economic fact and the drivers of aggressive wasteful spending that dress implies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Веблен Veblen Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Flexible Management in the IT and Creative Sector: Decentralized Capitalism? <p>The article presents the results of the study of the non-material labor organization modes in Russian companies in the IT and creative industries. The paper explores the connection between the flexible structure and the actual form of labor management, and the process of implementation of flexible development methodology (Agile) in the organization of knowledge-intensive firms. The author problematizes the validity of the statement, common in the theoretical and empirical literature, about the relationship between the Agile organizational designs and decentralized forms of management, expressed in the autonomy of labor and reducing the degree of managerial control. The study aims to empirically test the thesis using data from 30 interviews with middle management of companies that combine organizational flexibility and flexible management approaches. The purpose and the research question are based on the analysis of the current literature in the field of organizational research, management, and labor process theory. The description of the research results is divided into two blocks—the analysis of management practices at the “periphery” of the flexible firm, and the management processes in its “core” (following the terminology proposed by John Atkinson). According to the study, Agile management methods form a symmetrical response to the flexibilization of the organizational structure, allowing to improve the quality of management, the degree of transparency, and the predictability of production processes. Implementation of the Agile-methodology is accompanied by standardization and intensification of labor process; the increased role of centralized planning and control; and better accounting of working operations. A deeper division of labor due to the decomposition of operations significantly changes the functionality of management and redefines the balance of power and authority in the firm. The theoretical conclusions of the study indicate that further development of management methods in the described direction can have a negative impact on the quality of professional communication and functioning of horizontally organized professional communities within the firm, and can also decrease productivity in knowledge-intensive industries.</p> David Khumaryan Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword (Vadim Radaev) <p align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dear colleagues, This issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology is published on the day of the 30th anniversary of the Higher School of Economics (HSE University). It may not be the best time for celebrations. However, we would not like to miss this important date. Our sincere congratulations to all our colleagues who worked at the HSE in previous years and stay with the HSE at present! Now we proceed to a new issue of our journal.</span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Ontological Disunity of Money in Sociological Theory <p>This article examines the ontological question concerning the mode of existence of money in its various conceptualisations in sociology, namely in the theories of Marx, Simmel, Moss and Zelizer. It is argued that money is considered in sociological theory at three ontological levels, namely, (1) Determinate being of money, or concrete money stuff, which is immediately experienced and singularly represented, (2) the representation of money on which the perception of money stuff as money is grounded and (3) the objectivity of money, that is, the objective reality, either material or sui generis, which stands behind money as such. The first level, represented by Zelizer’s theory of monies, contains objects to which a subjective meaning is attached according to the concrete social relations. The second level takes money regardless of its substance and treats the essence of money not as the subjective meaning attached to things but as the idea of money, i.e., the universal form of representing things. The third level points at the reality that mediates the first two as subjective conditions of ultimate reality. It is shown that in all these theories the consistent account of money seems to be possible only due to the negation of the other ontological planes of money and that creates ontological disunity within all these theories.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmet Mert Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Determinants of Reasons for Financial Disagreements in Married or Cohabiting Couples in Russia: Relational Sociology Approach <p>At present, research on financial disagreements is extensive but general. There are no studies of financial conflicts in Russian families. Taking into consideration the values of partners in dyadic relationships by utilizing relational sociology framework, the study explores five types of financial disagreements: (i) value conflict, (ii) conflict over price, (iii) conflict over necessity, (iv) goal conflict, and (v) conflict over income, in order to detail the structure and the various reasons behind conflicts about money in Russian families; and aims to understand the determinants behind each type. The analysis was built on the 2018 wave of the Survey of Consumer Finance that presents dyadic data for 3,503 Russian couples. Regression models were calculated for men and women separately to identify gender effects. All the considered reasons for financial disagreements are caused in part by partners’ different attitudes towards money. In addition, the increase in women’s share of family income increases the likelihood of conflict over price; traditionalist attitudes correlate with an increase in goal conflict; and conflict over income is connected with dissatisfaction with the decision-making process. The study shows the significance of considering partners’ values for the analysis of a family’s financial situation.</p> Polina Zhidkova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Complaints are not Gifts. Dysfunctionality of the Institution of Complaints in the Field of Housing and Communal Services in Russia <p>Complaints, their forms, and their functions, as well as their institutionalization in various sectors of the economy, attract increasing interest among scientists around the world. According to O. S. Sukharev, ideas about the socio-psychological nature of complaints suggest a certain dysfunction of the relevant institution, which reduces its effectiveness but does not lead to its collapse. This article reflects the result of correspondence with a representative of the Novosibirsk economic and sociological school Prof. O. E. Bessonova, the author of a series of articles on the benefits of complaints as a signaling institution of a non-market type. The discussion concerned the controversy regarding the effectiveness and functionality of complaints in the field of housing and communal services in Russia. The author’s position is that the institution under consideration is not fully effective due to various circumstances. The dysfunctionality of complaints is demonstrated in various cases of institutional abuse, with one of the results being the mimicry of the institution as defined by E. V. Balatsky (a complaint as a denunciation). Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of vacuous, perfunctory bureaucratic replies to complaints, considered an institutional trap by V. M. Polterovich. The problem of false signals of complaints and their consequences is analyzed. The advantages of a personal appeal as an informal way of solving a problem are compared to a formal written complaint. At the same time, the role of transaction costs in the choice of one or another method of filing a complaint is noted. In conclusion, a forecast is given about the decrease in the functionality of the institution of complaints in modern Russian conditions in relation to the housing and communal services.</p> Denis Litvintsev Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Reason vs Feelling: Appearance of New Ecology of Choice in the Romantic Sphere of the Individual <p>The book review considers ideas and contemporary trends related to the sensual sphere of the individual and romantic relationships. In this book, Illouz writes about the consequences of modernism and the social conditioning of love, which is reflected in the romantic sphere. Her idea is that the institutions of modernism have led to the dominance of ideology of individualism, self-realization, political emancipation, independence, and free choice, and have changed personal ideas about what love should be and what romantic relationships can be. New forms of life have given rise to a “new ecology of choice” where choices are made based on culture and the sexualized discourse rather than personal preferences. In addition to using the works of well-known sociologists, Illouz’s argumentation is also based on empirical material. She analyses English novels of the XVIII-XIX centuries and modern novels about love and relationships, as well as self-help books and dating sites, soap operas, Internet blogs, and data coming from 70 interviews with men and women, aged 25 to 67, all of them with post-secondary degrees and living in three metropolitan areas in Europe, USA, and Israel. The sample included single people divided by three parameters: never married; married, but now divorced and currently single; and married people. Comparing these worlds, she tries to reconstruct the image of romantic relationships from the point of view of traditional culture and modernity. The purpose of the author is to show how the attitude of modern society to love, marriage, “love suffering”, and the relationship in general, have changed. Illouz problematizes the idea of marriage markets by Gary Becker, and writes about the crisis of family relations and the changing nature of marital obligations caused by the deinstitutionalization of marriage and the proliferation of individualized lifestyles.</p> Nina Lyubinarskaya Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Russian Instruments of Urban Planning from the Sociological Institutionalism Perspective <p>In this paper, we study the role of urban development instruments in structuring the interactions among the key urban politics actors: citizens, developers, public authorities, and experts. Using the sociological institutionalism approach, we collected 39 interviews with relevant stakeholders in four large Russian cities (Tyumen, Perm, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk) intending to uncover the “logic of appropriateness” behind the interpretation of the major formal planning instruments: general plans, land use, development rules, and public hearings. We show that following the formal rules of the planning process is based on their legally binding nature rather than on their embeddedness in normative-value orders. Consequently, the variability of the planning rules is determined by both the power asymmetry between the stakeholders of urban politics, and also by the absence of a general consensus regarding the value of these rules. We also demonstrate that while the informants almost universally critique general plans, they see some potential in the land use and development rules and the public hearings as instruments to build a local consensus. In other words, the problem of rule-following in urban planning has a distinct sociological dimension: the lack of a common value base in planning opens up a field of opportunities for rent-seeking behavior.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Innovation Complex: Cities, Tech, and the New Economy (excerpt) <p>The Innovation Complex presents a broad history of changes occurring worldwide. Focusing on New York City, Sharon Zukin shows a development of a new innovative economy. Each chapter is a study of the production of a particular space with its own embodied cultural forms and economic norms. In these processes, the whole innovation complex, including buildings, districts, and the city acquires scale, form, and sense. To show the scale of the innovation complex and how it works at different levels, the chapters in the book progress from describing smaller spaces to larger ones. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the seventh chapter devoted to how educative channels aim to develop the principles of technical and financial meritocracy. The chapter starts at several private elite universities of New York—Cornell, Columbia, and New York University, which use their place within the innovation complex for promoting the institutional agenda of academic capitalism. Then, it considers "Channel for technical talents," the project for creating more inclusive technical labor force, which may involve lower qualified citizens of New York City, including graduates from the New York City University. The last channel covers commercial program schools, such as the General Assembly and Flatiron School, where students pay large fees for 12-week intensive courses to be prepared for work in the technological industry. At the end of the chapter, the author discusses whether the combination of talent, meritocracy and academic capitalism will increase social inequality in the city.</p> Sharon Zukin Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Online Practices of the Economic Behavior of Russian Women during Maternity Leave] <p>The article analyzes the increasing importance of visual media content in the daily life of Russian women with children under the age of 3 and suggests methods for studying visual social networks, both graphic and intertextual content. Based on the theory of social construction of gender, the authors introduce the concept of “non-maternal practices of young mothers”, defining it as a set of actions performed by women during maternity leave and aimed at meeting their social, economic, psychological needs that arise from the disappearance of the usual rhythm of life. A significant part of these practices is implemented in the online space, which makes it possible to resolve the problem of their social isolation during this period. We analyzed 720 social media accounts to understand what the thematic field of the modern mother community is and what types of economic activity are implemented in it. The results of the study represent a classification of online practices of young mothers implemented in social networks and aimed at obtaining an economic effect. The classification is based on the principle of dominant agency: real or virtual. A feature of the first group is the choice of practices aimed at creating a product or providing services in direct interaction with the consumer (food production, clothing manufacturing, hairdressing and cosmetology services, education, and creative crafts), and the social network acts aimed at promoting a product or service. The second group focuses on the direct use of the digital environment as an economic resource (blogging, online consultations, network marketing). Most practices spring from women’s desire for communication, self-realization, and earnings, which is understandable in terms of gender analysis and economic realities. However, some actions may have problematic sociocultural consequences. The riskiness of the digital environment is associated with psychological consequences, including the formation of Internet addiction, as well as negative economic effects (the vulnerability of young mothers to Internet fraud, the discrepancy between time and labor costs, and the profit received). The main conclusion of the article is that the study of women’s online economic practices during maternity leave with a focus on non-maternity practices is a promising and strategically important area of research in the landscape of modern motherhood.</p> Anastasia Shvetsova, Marina Krivoshchekova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>It is with great sadness that we share the news that Professor Nigel Dodd passed away in August 2022. Nigel Dodd was a Professor of Sociology at the LSE. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1991 with Anthony Giddens as Supervisor, and lectured at the University of Liverpool before joining the LSE in 1995. Nigel’s main interests were in the sociology of money, economic sociology, and classical and<br>contemporary social thought. He was the author of The Sociology of Money and Social Theory and Modernity (both published by Polity Press). His most recent book, The Social Life of Money, was published by Princeton University Press in 2014. Nigel Dodd was also co-editor (with Patrik Aspers) of Re-Imagining Economic&nbsp; Sociology, published by Oxford University Press in 2015. Professor Dodd was editor-in-chief of the British Journal of Sociology from 2014 until 2022. He made major contributions to the sociology of money. He was a wonderful and pleasant person we have known for many years.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Economic and Sociocultural Aspects of Transnational Migration to Russia <p>This compendium presents the transnational approach to migration in action. The book contains articles on the movements of migrants, predominantly from Central Asian countries to Russia and back. Therefore, there is a compilation of data to support the heuristic potential of the concept of transnationalism, taking into account both homelands and host societies. The authors of the publications rely primarily on qualitative research, which is not very common, and it allows a reader to ‘hear’ the voices of the migrants. Simultaneously, some statistics are also given. The book deals with a wide range of objects and topics - transnational models of existence of migrants, the role and the movement of goods in the migration context (exchange of gifts, presents and souvenirs; the migrant car), the role of remittances, migration infrastructure, the use of mobile communications, etc. The apparent focus of the book is on how social and cultural factors impact transnationalism in addition to economic factors. Most of the articles in one way or another deal with the analysis of the interaction of these factors. The authors introduced references to some economic-sociological and economic-anthropological concepts for a better contextualization of the transnational migration processes. The major critical remarks in the review touch upon the issue of duplication of some provisions of the theory of transnationalism, ignoring links with other concepts of migration, and unwillingness to take into account the discussion on the topic previously developed in Russian academia. Also, although the issue of racism and discrimination is mentioned in passing, it would be desirable for future research to explain how transnationalism influences the (non)spread of racism. This collection may be of interest to both specialists and researchers of migration processes, and a wide range of readers.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Geneticization from the Point of View of Geneticists: Practices, and Prospectsof Personalized and Predictive Molecular Genetic Testing in Russia <p>The article offers the results of a qualitative empirical sociological analysis of medical geneticists on their assessment of the problems, opportunities, and prospects of predictive genetic testing in Russia as a relatively new branch of healthcare. The gradual introduction of a new genetic biopredictive technology into everyday life is regarded in the article as a phenomenon of geneticization or genomization. The analysis takes into account three main categories of medical geneticists: physician geneticists (who deal with patients), laboratory geneticists, and academic geneticists working in medical universities. The analysis revealed, firstly, those positions within the professional community of medical geneticists that can be called consensual. For example, concerning the problematic nature of the methodology for calculating risks associated with the development of multifactorial diseases, or with regard to the high cost of testing now and its inevitable reduction with biotechnological progress; about the reluctance of people in Russia to take preventive care of their health, and about the special prospects and demand for the oncology and pharmacogenetics industries. Other points of consensus include the clinical benefit of the results of predisposition testing for multifactorial diseases, the prospects for the development of the industry as a whole, etc. Between the poles of consensus and dissensus lie different views of professionals on the possibilities and prospects of predictive genetic testing practices. The results of the empirical research presented in the article are grounded in a historical and theoretical review of the scientific literature on the problem of the article. Initial conclusions are drawn as part of the study of social science (mostly Western) geneticization and its social consequences. The relevance of the conducted research is especially evident in the background of a large deficit of empirical studies of geneticization practices in Russia.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Contribution of Assisted Reproductive Technologies to the Reproductionof the Russian Population and Social Aspects of their Application <p>Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are perceived in modern society as one of the ways to increase the birth rate of the population. Despite the fact that they do demonstrate a noticeable increase in the effectiveness of increasing the share of successful cycles leading to pregnancy and childbirth, their contribution to the total number of births in Russia remains modest — only 2% (as of 2018). The role of ART is determined to a greater extent by their social significance: the development of this area provides an opportunity for the birth of children to those married couples who have problems with reproductive health. The present study shows what factors hinder the population's access to ART, and provides an assessment of the proportion of families that make up the potential for expanding the scale of coverage of the population with these services. The key factor determining the willingness to turn to assisted reproductive technologies is the presence of unrealized reproductive plans in the family. Based on the data of a representative sociological survey, it was found that respondents who demonstrated a willingness to resort to ART for the birth of children had a significant gap between the planned and actual number of children in the family. Such families were mostly prosperous, and showed a willingness to take risks associated with ART (for example, associated with a higher probability of having twins). In the final part of the work, conclusions are formulated regarding the prospects for expanding the use of ART in the regions of Russia. It is shown that the most significant barriers that limit this growth are the relatively cautious perception on the part of the population and payment for some concomitant procedure by the patients.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Automation and the Future of Work (excerpt) <p>Thinking over what people will do in the automized future, researchers come to the conclusion: we will meet mass technologically-based unemployment, and we will be able to cope with it only by accepting universal basic income as major social groups will lose an opportunity to earn enough money for living. In this book the author critiques the new automation discourse, rejecting the hypothesis that overwhelming technological changes result in destroying jobs. In reality, changes in labor productivity are slowing not speeding up. Coupling with the decline in economic growth, the creation of new jobs is also down. Namely, this fact, and not technological innovations, is responsible for squeezing the demand for labor. In this book, the author opposes the new wave of automation discourse, and suggests his version of history of the global economy and labor development in the last 50 years. The author further believes that the majority of employed people will stop being tolerant of the chronicle decline in demand for labor and resulting economic inequality, which will turn the world towards a more humanized future. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter “Discourse of Automation” in which the author systematizes arguments of the new automation discourse in order to provide his explanations for the declining demand for labor in the next chapters.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Social Structure in new Russia: Evidence from Bayesian Latent Class Analysis <p>The study presents the results of the multidimensional approach to the social stratification of contemporary Russian society. The proposed model employs the Weberian concept of life chances which has been operationalized on the map of 24 binary items measuring the positive and negative privileges of individuals and their households in four major domains of life, economic stability and security, industrial relations, human development, and economic consumption and leisure. Drawing from the Monitoring data conducted by the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2015 and 2019, we proposed the posterior model of vertically integrated five socioeconomic classes. These are as follows (2015 and 2018): disadvantaged (lower) non-economic class (23 and 21,8%, correspondingly), disadvantaged (lower) economic class (19,4% and 17,3%), two semi-privileged classes—lower middle class (29,4% и 34,1%) and true middle class (15,8% и 13,4%)—and advantaged (upper middle) class (12,4% and 13,4%). The obtained results reassess the popular view that there are no big classes in industrially advanced societies and highlight the importance of the noneconomic forces of multidimensional stratification of the Russian society in the posttransition era. The results also showed that the disadvantaged economic class demonstrates the highest degree of protest voting. The upper middle class turned out to be the most politically loyal, which saliently contradicts the prevailing stereotypes about the patterns of the political behavior of citizens in the new Russia.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Indigenous economy in the Arctic regions: traditions, market, state (on the example of the transformation of the economic activity of the Indigenous peoples in Russia, Finland, and the USA) <p>The article describes the interaction of the economy and culture, in the frameworks of Indigenous economic development. It implies strong embeddedness of the economic activities of Indigenous peoples in their social and cultural life. The Indigenous economy is based on traditional nature management and it is closely linked to their knowledge of nature, folklore, language, social norms and expectations. At the same time, the active inclusion of Indigenous communities into market relations leads to significant social and economic transformations of their lives. This implies the question of how to preserve the unique&nbsp; indigenous culture in the market context. The paper considers three different scenarios for the development of the Indigenous economy in the Arctic regions using the examples of Russia, Finland and the United States. In Russia, the state plays a significant role by providing paternalistic care to the Indigenous population and focusing on the preservation of traditional culture; Finland is dominated by a market scenario for the development of Indigenous traditional economies and governmental support for indigenous culture and welfare; and the United States represents an intermediate case in which market incentives and paternalism are combined. The article also examines how the chosen scenario affected the social and cultural aspects of the life of the Indigenous people. The latter are associated with a new attitude to nature, the development of new cultural patterns, and the emergence of new culturally colored types of economic activity. The study is based on qualitative methodology. The main research methods were semi-structured interviews, observations, and analysis of documents.</p> Elena Gladun Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,<br>The geopolitical positions of Russia and the general situation in the world keep on deteriorating. Predictions for the future are becoming increasingly gloomy. Let us hope that worst of these predictions will never&nbsp; come true.</p> Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Conspiracy Thinking: Concept, Measurement and Factors <p>The article provides an overview of the literature on conspiracy thinking. Although there is no consensus on the definition of this concept, as a rule, researchers pay attention to the following similar aspects: belief in secret and covert actions, a group of interested persons influencing world processes or hiding information about something, the false or implausible nature of conspiracy theories. There are two fundamentally different approaches to measuring conspiracy thinking: (1) in terms of agreement with several real conspiracy theories, (2) in general terms, without reference to specific conspiracy theories. Each of these approaches has serious limitations, both specific (for example, the arbitrariness of the choice of conspiracy theories for the first approach and the lack of one-dimensionality of the scales for the second), and general (the difficulty of using the scales in comparative international studies). The article provides examples of scales that correspond to each of the approaches. Factors influencing belief in conspiracy theories can be divided into psychological and social. Conspiracy beliefs are more common in people with high anxiety, low self-esteem and less developed analytical skills. In addition, conspiracy theories are more often believed by people with low social status and educational level, low level of generalized and political trust, belonging to the ends of the ideological spectrum, and consuming information from glossy magazines and social networks. The role of age and religiosity is less straightforward.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anastsia Kazun Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, Events that started on February 24, 2022 brought radical changes to Russia and the whole world. Both academic activity and daily life have become much more uncertain and complicated. Quite quickly, many members of the&nbsp; nternational Board cancelled their affiliations with our Journal. We really appreciate the attitude of those who did not cancel their cooperation with us on the basis of our nationality. Despite all expected difficulties, we have to fulfil our professional duties and present to you the next issue of our journal.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Social Media in the Adaptation of Russians Working in Precarious Labour Markets in Korea and China <p>How do migrants use social media to adapt to new social conditions, including those in the labour market? Does it matter which social media and how many of them are available for migrants? Answering these questions, we focus on particular social groups—Russian citizens engaged in precarious work in China and South Korea. These labour market segments have hardly been described in the academic literature, mainly because such migrant flows are not observable in the receiving or sending country. As a rule, these people do not have legal migration status (they do not have work permits, long-term residence permits, insurance, and other necessary documents). We aim to compare two situations—the Korean one, where different social media (WhatsApp, VK, Viber, and others) are available to migrants, and the Chinese one, where WeChat dominates, and hence, in so doing to understand what happens in the context of one dominant media. In addition to analyzing work requests and job vacancies published in social media (WeChat, VK, Telegram, WhatsApp), we use in-depth interviews with precarious workers (23 interviews obtained in China and 31 in Korea).</p> Natalya Ryzhova, Tatiana Zhuravskaya Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Why Demography Matters (excerpt) <p>Demography is not destiny. As Giacomo Casanova explained over two centuries ago: ‘There is no such thing as destiny. We ourselves shape our own lives.’ Today we are shaping them and our societies more than ever before. Globally, we have never had fewer children per adult: our population is about to stabilize, though we do not know when or at what number, or what will happen after that. It will be the result of billions of very private decisions influenced in turn by multiple events and policies, some more unpredictable than others. More people are moving further around the world than ever before: we too often see that as frightening, rather than as indicating greater freedom. Similarly, we too often lament greater ageing, rather than recognizing it as a tremendous human achievement with numerous benefits to which we must adapt. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the chapter eight “Population and Politics,” where the authors discuss the political demography. Here they address eugenics, in both its historical and contemporary manifestations, and then look again at migration and past fertility patterns that may influence it.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Online Dating: Market or Bazaar? The Marriage Partner Search Process on an Orthodox Dating Site <p>According to a number of researchers, in view of the marketization of culture, the processes of searching for and choosing a romantic partner have taken on the characteristics of a market which becomes especially apparent in case of online dating platforms [Heino Ellison, Gibbs 2010; Schmitz 2017]. The logic of religious dating platforms, where the proclaimed goal is to find a spouse once and for good, may conflict with the market integration logic of a platform itself. In this study, based on the in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18-35-year-old Orthodox online dating platform users from Moscow and the Moscow region, the objective is to identify the form of integration that is suitable for describing the search for a couple on this site. Firstly, the search for a partner is studied through G. Akerlof's perspective as search on the market so that the website’s questionnaire and photos are treated as institutional mechanisms used to tackle the problem of imperfect information and the quality uncertainty. Secondly, the search process in hand is considered as a bazaar in line with C. Geertz’s argument where messaging is bargaining, and users, motivated by the desire to find a soulmate, aim at clientelization. Finally, the authors infer that the bazaar perspective is more relevant for describing the search process in the considered case. In conclusion, the market angle itself is problematized, and attention is also paid to the functioning of the platforms in general.</p> Kristina Galitsina, Polina Kalinovskaya, Olga Khvorostianova Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 “3D-model” of the Russian Economy <p>The review considers the results of a study implemented in 2020—early 2021, and reflected in the presented collective monograph. It is shown that the applied approach (macroeconomic analysis in combination with the mezzo-level analysis of each of the industries and at the level of individual firms) enabled showing an ambiguous reaction to the pandemic of different companies and the new risks and opportunities associated with it in six sectors of the Russian economy, and in the global context of the development of the relevant sectors in the world economy. In particular, the trends of the previous development, as well as the situation in the first period of the pandemic and after the initial recovery, as well as possible trajectories of further development in retail trade, IT, the tourism sector, pharmaceutical production, automotive industry and the chemical industry are considered. The resulting picture allows us to better understand both the opportunities and limitations of further development, as well as the challenges and possible junctions the Russian state policy is facing. In the book they are presented as follows: (1) the further increase in the already high internal and interregional divergence (regarding the technological development, productivity, profitability, etc.) in sectors with vertical coordination; (2) the further digitalization, which in sectors with developed horizontal ties will entail updating business models and formats; (3) the increased role of intangible assets of companies (knowledge, skills), growing competition both within and between industries for human capital; (4) health, safety, nutrition, and entertainment will become the core drivers of the economy.<br>In conclusion, critical remarks are formulated: underestimation of the specifics of the pandemic as an extraeconomic shock, in comparison with typical economic crises (and models for overcoming them); the need to analyze the general trends in the global and Russian economies in the context of the downward wave of the current long economic cycle; compositional difficulties of the monograph.</p> Alexander Chepurenko Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Digital Utopia: Labour in the Age of Artificial Intelligence <p>In recent years, we have been hearing more about the growing capabilities of artificial intelligence technologies, which are invisibly but surely being introduced into our lives in all its manifestations. Will these technologies revolutionize work? Can the digital utopia be realized? British researcher Phil Jones tries to answer these and many other questions in his book Work Without the Worker: Labour in the Age of Platform Capitalism. Jones invites the reader to look at the reverse and very unsightly side of the digital utopia. The focus of the research is microwork, realized in the form of the so-called “human intelligence task” (HIT) or “artificial artificial intelligence” (AAI). The purpose of the book is to show that it is the poorly paid and mentally destructive tasks performed by humans that make our digital lives more convenient and understandable, and not the functioning of artificial intelligence algorithms. The author analyzes the work of the “Mechanical Turk” service employees and its negative consequences, for example, the lack of guaranteed work and its payment, alienation, and an increasing number of psychological problems. The review presents the key provisions of the book: it describes the specifics of the MTurk service and the reasons for the author’s interest in this platform. It reveals Jones’s understanding of the term “microwork”, its main characteristics, and features of work, considers the factors that make it difficult to protest in the age of platform capitalism, outlines new utopia, and contains some critical remarks. The conclusion is that Jones’s book can be recommended reading for anyone interested in labour issues in the contemporary world.</p> Tatiana Martynenko Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Samantha King <p>The interview with professor Samantha King, the author of the famous Pink Ribbons, Inc: Breast Cancer and the Politics of Philanthropy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), reveals her current studies within the field of cultural politics of health, sport and the body. Samantha introduces her research group in Queen’s University that critically looks at the healthification of market and political processes when social control, inequality and power asymmetry are pursued under the super value of health. She describes how her team uses the genealogical method by M. Foucault to reconstruct the dynamics of historical, ideological, economic, social agendas that shape local judgments about fruitful cultural frames for corporate charity, medicalized performance in professional sport, and painkiller use by people from different social classes. King’s Group studies criticize discourses about individual responsibility and good citizenship as those that may welcome getting pills into bodies instead of transforming the economic and social contexts out of which the disease arises. In the interview, Samantha traces the changes in anti-cancer philanthropy in recent years, comments on the political struggles behind the COVID-19 pandemic and points to the the hidden layers of the protein supplements market challenged by the post-humanistic ban on eating animals, emerging laboratory-meat supply, and ecological concern. The interview with Samantha King as well as her scientific articles will be useful for those who reflect on the incorporation of the human body and subjectivity into capitalistic production in different geopolitical realms.</p> Samantha King Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Spatial Inequality: the Case of Russian Education <p>In Russia, the sheer size of the country and the diversity of its socio-demographic and economic contexts are factors that greatly shape educational outcomes and student opportunities. Current research on the spatial context of educational inequality is insufficient. There is a risk of underestimation of importance of spatial differences and the challenges they create for researchers and policymakers in the field of education. The purpose of this work is to analyze the existing conceptual approaches to the study of spatial inequality in Russian education. This paper present two conceptual approaches to understanding spatial inequality, and, respectively, two different answers to the question of whether socio-economic differences between territories is the main factor in educational inequality. Much of the existing research on educational inequality in Russia follows the spirit, if not the letter, of “geography of opportunity,” in which spatial inequality is the geographic dimension of social segregation. This approach implies that due to the historically uneven distribution of economic capital in space, geography is becoming a significant factor that limits students’ opportunities in terms of access to educational resources, choice of trajectory and educational achievement. However, this does not take into account the more complex social hierarchy of space, which is described in the works of Bourdieu and his followers. This second approach opens up prospects for studying the symbolic status of space, as well as the spatial capital of individuals, organizations, and the territories themselves. The approaches described in this article introduce new opportunities for educational researchers and pose a number of challenges for educational policy in Russia. This paper also shows the possibilities of operationalizing these concepts for transferring them to the field of education.</p> Ksenia Adamovich Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 A Guide for Market-Based Interventions and Public Problems <p>Is it possible to apply economic mechanisms to solve public problems, especially sensitive and morally rooted ones? Can markets effectively and fairly regulate social issues in the public policy field? During the last several decades, with the spread of market mechanisms in the social order, theoreticians and practitioners have been searching for market-based interventions. While a significant body of literature criticizes neoliberalism for its limitations and contradictions, the collective of the sociologists Daniel Neyland, Véra Ehrenstein, and Sveta Milyaeva suggest in their book Can Markets Solve Problems? An Empirical Study of Neoliberalism in Action problematizing not only the role of the market in the implementation of government interventions but also the very definition of the market—its constituent relationships, practices, meanings, and calculative devices. Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), the authors propose looking behind the processes of market assembly work and investigating how in the course of market-based interventions social problems, entities, and relationships are shaped, transformed, and allow the achievement of certain results in public policy. Based on the empirical materials of an extensive ethnographic study (legal and historical documents and semi-structured interviews with experts, managers, and stakeholders), the authors use six empirical cases to illustrate how competition, investment and return, property, trade and exchange, incentives, and selling can, in practice, not only become instruments of market-based intervention but also shape and redefine the subject matter itself. The book will be of interest and beneficial to researchers in the field of sociology of markets as a source of rich descriptions of markets, which generally constitute a subject of active government regulation and which become a platform for the symbolic struggle of various market actors.</p> Daria R. Lebedeva Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Fieldwork Challenges Stemming from Doing Studies in Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) <p>This article presents the authors’ self-reflections on the challenges they faced as researchers during their long-term study of the illegal wildlife trade of sturgeon meat and caviar and Caspian seals’ skins and oil that they carried out from 2012 to 2019. The authors focus on the following main topics: personal health and security issues resulting from the activities of the police and the Federal Security Service, the recruitment and training of local assistants and university students, intergenerational and gender gaps that exhibit a strong influence on the development of trust between researchers and respondents, the network density of market dynamics and speed of communication through the market, and the shift in environmental legal regulations as an influence on current studies. In addition, the authors stress the lack of appropriate infrastructure to conduct systemic data collection and local populations’ unawareness of research fieldwork on social and economic issues ever undertaken in the areas under study. The authors show that for the study of informal economy activities to prove successful, several points should be identified: first, the formation of identity to be considered acceptable in the local community so that the researcher is perceived as a member of the community; second, the influence of gender boundaries on research driven by the ever-increasing complexity of social interactions set in different social and cultural contexts; and, third, time and funding as two of the most important things that should be taken into account when planning field studies, depending on how strong the illegality is and whether assistants are ready to face “others” from their own community.</p> Ilya V. Ermolin, Linas Svolkinas, Simon J. Goodman, George Holmes, Pavel Suvorkov Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Employment, Secondary Jobholding, and Labor Income Inequality <p>Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 2000 to 2014, this study analyzes the evolution of various sources of labor income: salaried employment in a primary job, self-employment in a primary job, secondary employment, and irregular earnings. The composition of income sources reflects the strategies of adaptation to economic shocks, institutional changes, and technological innovations. The paper contributes to the debates about the precarization of employment and, more broadly, to the development of sociological views about social class structure. The importance of salaried employment in a single job markedly increased between 2000 and 2014, both as the share of the workforce and as the fraction of total labor incomes. Simultaneously, the prevalence of secondary job holding and irregular work activities declined, which indicates the stabilization of the social structure. The results show that additional labor incomes and total labor income are distributed less evenly than earnings from a primary job. The observed changes in the structure of employment are associated with a 7–8% reduction in labor income inequality, which exceeds the contribution of changes in the education structure or population aging. Multiple jobholding retains its role as a source of social differentiation, despite a significant reduction in its incidence.</p> Anna L. Lukyanova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 A Theory of Fields (Excerpt) <p>The central goal of this book is to explicate an integrated theory that explains how stability and change are achieved by social actors in circumscribed social arenas. The theory rests on a view that sees strategic action fields, which can be defined as mesolevel social orders, as the basic structural building blocks of modern political/organizational life in the economy, civil society, and the state. In constructing a new perspective, the authors draw upon the rich body of integrative scholarship produced by economic sociologists, institutional theorists in both sociology and political science, and social movement scholars. The Journal of Economic Sociology is pleased to publish the first chapter, “The Gist of It.” In this chapter, the authors sketch the basic features of this perspective in some detail, differentiating the new elements from the old, including Bourdieu, Giddens, institutional theory, network analysis, and social movement theory.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Neil Fligstein, Doug Mcadam Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Social Mobility of Russians in Terms of Life Chances and Risks <p>This paper focuses on the issues of social mobility and immobility of Russians in the neo-Weberian stratification hierarchy of Russian society, based on indicators of life chances. Social mobility is interpreted as a transition between three mass strata. Trajectories of mobility (rates and factors) are analyzed using the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) panel data of a six-year interval from 2013 to 2018 and the group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) method. It is shown that a quarter of Russians moved between strata. Mobility usually occurs over a short distance. Cases of significant life changes that would lead to transition between polar strata (low and high) are exceptions to the rule. The chances of getting into polar strata depend on the quality of human potential and, as a result, on individuals’ places in the system of industrial relations. Only highly qualified Russians with good health, who also originate from highly educated families, have high chances of getting into positively privileged (high) strata. For these Russians, composite rents work. Risks of moving down to low strata are present for Russians with low education, bad health and parents with low education, mainly due to employment in bad job positions that violate employees’ rights. The paper shows that social background continues to play a significant role in shaping chances of social wellbeing and mobility. It also draws attention to the fact that skills in use of information technology form a new basis for inequality between people.</p> Ekaterina D. Slobodenyuk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Throwing Food Away and Food Rescue Practices in Russia (Microlevel Analysis) <p>About one-third of all food produced in the world is thrown away. The higher the development level of the country, the more this practice is contributed to by microlevel actors, i.e., consumers (households). Food waste is a serious environmental, economic, social, and ethical issue, and a search for effective ways to alleviate this issue conforms to sustainable development goals. The problem is systemic, and its theoretical conceptualization follows this path. However, some aspects of this problem have not been examined equally: one of its least studied aspects is the relationship between (not) throwing food away, on the one hand, and actual food rescue practices implemented by consumers, on the other. Capturing this relationship is important for understanding both the nature of the food waste phenomenon and the comparative role of various recovery practices, including new ones (e.g. peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing), and the civil society potential in alleviating the waste issue. Based on a representative survey (N = 2,000 respondents, November 2020), the levels and factors of Russians’ engagement in groups with different attitudes toward throwing food away have been identified (“not throwing away food,” “throwing away edible food,” and “throwing away spoiled food”). We used regression analysis to estimate the relationship between the probability of being included in any of these groups and the involvement in various food rescue practices (feeding animals and food waste composting, extending the shelf life of products, and donating unneeded food to others, including P2P food sharing). It has been shown that consumers using social channels for food rescue (both practicing food sharing and not), ceteris paribus, are less likely to throw away edible food and more likely to throw away spoiled food (at least during the pandemic, although probably this is not so much due to the pandemic). Conclusions are made about the importance of combining social rescue practices with other types of food rescue and about the potential of civil society in mitigating the issue.</p> Marina A. Shabanova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><strong>Dear colleagues,</strong><br>After the pleasant Christmas vacation, we are back to our routines. Universities have returned to conventional teaching of their classes, although nobody knows whether we will be able to keep these activities offline, given that a new strain of coronavirus, Omicron, is spreading around the world.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 "Digital Rush": In Search of Balance between Professional and Market Logics in Web Journalism <p>A book written by French-born American sociologist Angele Christin, Metrics at Work: Journalism and the Contested Meaning of Algorithms, is devoted to the specificities of the functioning of publications during the traffic-chase era. The book's main goal is to show how the implementation of algorithms affects the professional identity and working practices of journalists. The scholar uses a multi-stage theoretical framework as she turns to Bour- dieu's concept of field, the sociology of "Worlds" by Boltanski and Thevenot, the theory of institutional isomorphism proposed by DiMaggio and Powell, and other relevant approaches examined in The New Economic Sociology. The book is based on a comparative study of two web publications in the United States and France during the period 2011-2015. The author uses a mixed methodology whose core is comprised of observation and semi- structured interviews with the staff of media organizations. Referring to the broad empirical material, Christin wonders whether metrics are really able to eradicate dis-tinctions between national mass media in different countries. Although the two web publications face similar challenges in terms of modern journalism, they tackle them in different ways. This is due to the embeddedness of the professional activity of journalists in the institutional context, organizational structures, and profes-sional fields. The review raises the key issues of the book: a brief history of the formation of web journalism in the United States and France, the media organizations' perception of metrics and audience, and the role of independent professionals in news production.</p> Liudmila Bogomazova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Problem of Defining the Essence of Money in Contemporary Economic Sociology: Between the State and Trust <p>The article considers the problem of defining the essence of money, which is one of the main problems in the contemporary sociology of money. This problem cannot be explained using the neoclassical economic analysis of money, in particular, the evolutionary theory of money by Menger. The main idea of this approach is that the origins of money should be found in the reducing cost of exchange based on the rationality of economic agents. Consequently, the universality of money and its spatial spread have remained unexplained (including temporary uncertainty and the use of money in the future). The paper presents two approaches—by Ingham and Dodd—to defining the essence of money. Considerable attention is paid to classic works in the field written by Simmel and Keynes. From the analy¬sis, we see that the main features distinguishing monetary exchange from other forms of exchange (including barter) can be found in Simmel's The Philosophy of Money. Simmel also provided two solutions on how to de¬fine money: the state's production of credit money or trust in money from society. Ingham developed the first solution and singled out the state's pro¬duction of credit (and the creation of money as account). Meanwhile, Dodd insisted on the fiduciary component of the financial system as a crucial element. Both authors used the metaphor of money as an idea or process embedded in social relations, which contrasts the commodity metaphor in¬troduced by Menger. The main assertion of the article is that the metaphor of money as an idea corresponds to the proposition that the basic function of money is the measure of value (money of account), or store of value, while the neoclassical model suggests that the commodity metaphor of money and its unit of exchange function are crucial. In addition, contemporary theories of money introduce the distinction between money as account (which is more abstract) and particular forms of money (which can be named money stuff). Similarities and contradictions between the two solutions to the problem of uncertainty— by Ingham and Dodd—are also presented in the article.</p> Egor Makarov, Dmirtry Tikhomirov Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 High-Quality Donor: Criteria for the Selection of Gamete Donors in the Russian Field of Assisted Reproductive Technologies <p>The emergence of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been one of the groundbreaking solutions to the problem of infertility, but these technologies involve interference with the natural process of giv¬ing birth to a child. In this study, we answer the question of whether we can talk about attempts by parents to influence the "quality" of their child in ART through the mechanism of choosing gamete donors. The theoretical analysis considers the concept of the "quality" of biomaterial in the context of the commodification of vital goods as well as the problem of kinship associated with the transformation of family relations as a result of the application of ARTs. Foreign studies have confirmed the attempt to influence the "quality" of the child through the choice of donors with certain characteristics. However, in the Russian context of social conservatism, previous studies have found interference in the ge¬netics of a child to be unacceptable. The aim of this work is to explore how the possibilities of controlling the "quality" of a child are distributed between doctors and infertile couples as well as the hidden social grounds behind the criteria used for choosing a donor. The focus of the study is on the representatives of reproductive centers and sperm and egg banks in Moscow. The strategies for selecting respondents were targeted selection and the snowball method, with the database consisting of fifteen semi-struc¬tured interviews.<br>The analysis revealed that potential parents are included in the ART process as actors whose actions are subordinate to those of medical centers . The image of a "high-quality" donor is formed through the prism of certain requirements put forward to donors by ART centers and then transmitted to parents. In addition, the study found a tendency in the desire of potential parents to influence the "quality" of their child—not in an absolute but a relative sense—to have a child of the same "quality" as themselves.</p> Anastasia Grishanina, Alexandra Narskaya, Polina Smirnova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Land Use Regulations: Legally Fluid Technology <p>Urban law is changeable, and its changes may be associated with those in the material environment of the city as well as those in legal instruments. Conse¬quently, the law itself is unstable. Two types of changes are associated with two types of conflict in urban law: conflicts of norms and property rights. The coordination of the two types of conflict means that urban law is decidedly technical. Therefore, the established methods of analyzing urban law, which emphasize the distinction between formal and informal relations, do not work to explain the ways of city law. According to the hypothesis of the study, urban law does not act as a normative or political tool but as an "unstable technique" (a term used de Laet and Mol) that unites a bundle of normative styles. In exemplifying the unstable technique of law, the article considers a local docu¬ment of Russian urban regulation—Rules of Land Use and Development (PZZ). The research material was collected in the spring of 2021 in two Russian regional cities named in the text: Frontier City and Factory City. In the empirical part, two cases are analyzed. Changes in the PZZ that affect the material form of the city are described as moving objects that go through a series of negotiations and approvals. For legal changes in the context of the PZZ that affect the structure of the document and its normative styles, the study shows how such changes can be integrated into the existing structure of the PZZ. As a result, we see that the two cities work with material and legal changes in different ways, but both types of changes are irreducible to each other: the transformation of one into the other will lead to the destruction of the existing social order. This type of trans¬formation, which Lo calls non-homeomorphic, sets the structure of the variability of PZZ and urban law and determines their topological nature, built on the ongoing switching between different normative styles.</p> Nataliya Volkova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 24/7. Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep (an excerpt) <p>24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep explores some of the ruinous consequences of the expansion of non-stop processes of twenty-first-century capitalism. The marketplace now operates around the clock, pushing us into constant activity and eroding forms of community and political expression, damaging the fabric of everyday life.&nbsp;In his book, Crary examines how this interminable non-time blurs any separa­tion between an intensified, ubiquitous consumerism and emerging strategies of control and surveillance. He describes the ongoing management of indi­vidual attentiveness and the impairment of perception within the compulsory routines of our contemporary technological culture. At the same time, he shows that human sleep—a restor­ative withdrawal that is intrinsically incompatible with 24/7 capitalism—points to other more formidable and collective refusals of world-destroying patterns of growth and accumulation.&nbsp;The Journal of Economic Sociology will publish the first chapter of this book, which engages in a discussion of the reasons for sleep erosion and its connection to the dynamics of modern capitalism. Crary also alludes to the main threats of the 24/7 world and the possible human consequences.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Precedence and Conspicuousness in Car Consumption <p>We study how the availability of bank loans feeds excessive consump¬tion, including the acquisition of goods for the sake of appearances. The aim of the paper is to review the institutions of consumer behavior and borrowing behavior, which have taken root due to consumer lending, in the case of auto loans in the Rostov region, Russia. We rely on material and statistical data from 2002-2020 from a variety of sources, including the Central Bank of Russia, Rosstat, National Bureau of Credit Histories (NBCH JSC), traffic police, etc. We build and estimate metrics featuring household borrowing behavior with regard to auto loans. The empirical results suggest a habitualization of the precedence of consumption (a term borrowed from Jean Baudrillard), including debt-driven ostenta¬tious consumption. Borrowed money closes the gap between the cost of affordable cars and that of sought-after cars under the influence of socially induced criteria. Household spending on these items grew in ab¬solute and relative terms. Our theoretical contribution is that we integrate the elements of several theories, namely, the concept of the precedence of consumption from sociology, osten-tatious consumption from institutional theory, the social significance of banks as creditors, the socio-economic consequences of financialization, etc. Unlike some other authors, we extend the concept of ostentatious con¬sumption to practically all goods, depending on the motivation that drives an individual, instead of confining it to luxury goods purchases by high-net-worth individuals. The contribution to the empirical literature is that we operationalize theoretical constructs in order to quantify them using factual data on auto loans. We conclude that the concepts of the precedence of consumption and ostentatious consumption remain valuable instruments in enabling us to interpret a number of empirical effects of financialization at the household level.</p> Andreyi Vernikov, Anna Kurysheva Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,&nbsp;We hope that this new academic year will lead to easing restrictions and removing barriers. Let us present a new issue of our journal.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,<br>By the end of this year, we will be facing the next wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, but we do anticipate a<br>better future. The barriers are still in place, and many students have returned to online education once again.<br>However, this does not affect the publication of a new issue of our journal.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 To Reassemble Capitalism: Economic Sociology and its "Political Unconscious" <p>The article offers a commentary on the discussion of the article "Politi­cal Economy after Neoliberalism" by Fligstein and Vogel, published in the current issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology. The authors draw the attention of Russian-speaking readers to the fact that the work of American researchers not only problematizes the content of political debates in the United States, but also shapes the basic principles of eco­nomic and sociological analysis of various economic systems in their connection with regulation policies and public control. Arguments are given in favor of the fact that the article by Fligstein and Vogel is a kind of manifesto of new economic sociology, demonstrating its "political unconscious"—a number of axiomatic assumptions about the function­ing of the capitalist political economy, arising from the research per­spective of economic sociology and related disciplines. The structure of the argument proposed in the article includes an analysis of several theoretical and empirical directions: a discussion about the varieties of empirical models of capitalism and statements about the political na­ture of choice of the institutional architecture of economies, the ways of organizing relations between corporations and society, and the role of the state in the economy. The authors note that the so-called neoliberal turn in social and economic policy in recent years was partly based on the purely intellectual principle in mainstream economic theory that opposes states and markets. Studies in the field of economic sociology, history, and comparative political economy demonstrate the fallacy of this statement, offering a conceptual resource for rethinking modern capitalism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dmitrii Zhikharevich, David Khumaryan Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Skinner's Box for the Consumer <p>The review signifies the key ideas of the book by Shoshanna Zuboff, who indicates the rise of a new form of capitalism called surveillance capital­ism. This economic order is dominated by commercial IT companies, with a power advantage anchored in the monopoly for the means of behavior modification. Algorithms track the personal experience of users, while the scientific processing of these data opens unprecedented opportunities for the prediction of human feelings, desires, and decisions that transform new digi­tal certainty into an inexhaustible source of economic and political profit. Zuboffs research constructs a conceptual language for assessing the quality of a social order that is performatively produced by surveillance capital­ism. The author criticizes the new economic system for breaking away from democratic principles. Control over human life, which can be achieved with modern information technology, is overarching. Recently, the massive expansion of consumer markets has fostered democratization and personalization. Surveillance capitalism involves objectifying a unique person to an anonymous Internet user and beginning to make money not out of consumer needs but by selling aggre­gated information about human behavior that can be used in consumer demand management. The fundamental message of the book is that European society is again risking its humanistic ideals for monetary gain. The book proves this message with the author's eight-year ethnography in the field of global technology corporations. Field results are assessed against the postulates of social behaviorism. The review reveals the experience of reading Sh. Zuboff's book in the context of the exploitation of man by man in modern European society. Researchers who compare different forms of capitalism with each other, think about the digitalization of the social order, or care about the challenges for human rights under different economic regimes will find the book thought-provoking and, therefore, useful.</p> Elena Berdysheva Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Field Experiments and the Rubin Causal Model: Review of Approaches and Current Research <p>Experiments of various kinds are increasingly being used in the social sciences to derive causal inference. Among the varieties of this method, field experiments are especially noteworthy. Explosive growth in their numbers has been observed in recent years, primarily in economics and political science. Gradually, field experimentation is starting to spread to other disciplines. One of the most important reasons for this is the popu­larization of the so-called Donald Rubin model of causal inference, which allows researchers to link experimental methods with statistics and other mathematical methods. In the Russian-speaking academic field, one can observe a lack of texts describing how field experiments are related to this model in causal inference, while such a research design allows us to focus specifically on the search for the causality of various social phe­nomena. This article provides a critical-bibliographic review of both the conceptual model of causation and the existing research carried out in the design of field experiments in the Rubin model. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the main paradigms of causation and how, from one of them (the approach of potential outcomes and counterfactual inference), the Rubin model logically arises. The following describes the milestones in the history of field ex­periments before the Rubin model. This is followed by a description of the model and today's debate about the advantages, limitations, and design features of the field experiment. Finally, with a few examples, we analyze several well-known field experiments to illustrate the operation of the described method.</p> Dmitrii Serebrennikov, Julia Kuzmina Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Venture Capitalism, High-Technology Financing and the State's Innovation Policy: A Sociological Analysis of the U.S. Experience (1940s-2010s) <p>This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature on venture capi¬talism. The major approaches to the study of venture financing and its institutional forms are considered against the background of the experi¬ence of the U.S., where this industry exists the longest. Economists ana¬lyze venture capital as an institutional response either to the failure of the market for knowledge or to the failure of the market for entrepreneurial finance. Economic sociologists complement this analysis by emphasiz¬ing venture capital firms' role in socializing technological entrepreneurs, indirect financing of innovation ecosystems, and risk management. In the more recent literature inspired by critical political economy and economic history, this functionalist, market-failure type of argument is increasingly called into question because of its insufficient attention to the role of the state in creating and maintaining the venture capital industry. Based on this literature, the paper illustrates the connection between the genesis of the venture capital industry in the U.S. and the evolution of the devel¬opmental state in post-war U.S. In conclusion, this paper discusses insti¬tutional alternatives to venture capital and the applicability of the U.S. experience to other contexts.</p> Dmitrii Zhikharevich Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Imagination, Uncertainty and Business Strategies of Russian Companies in the Field of Medical Devices <p>High-tech innovation is often understood as creating new worlds and tra¬jectories of development and generating uncertainty. On the basis of 15 interviews with the heads of Russian medical technology companies, the paper presents the different types of uncertainties faced by med-tech entre¬preneurs. Is the lack of exact knowledge about the results of the develop¬ment and implementation of new technologies (a classic type of uncer¬tainty in the innovation sector) perceived by entrepreneurs as a difficulty? Or do they deal with uncertainties of another type, for example, related to the political and economic context in the country? What business models are emerging in the industry for regional companies? What is the role of expectations and the imagination in the work of the company director or R &amp; D engineers? How is this related to the specifics of the health industry? As a theoretical basis, the concepts of uncertainty in the innovation sector, as well as uncertainty associated with the rules of the game set by political and economic institutions, are considered. The strategies of innova¬tive entrepreneurs in conditions of uncertainty are investigated using the concept of the imaginary in the ver¬sion of science and technology studies (STS). This research identifies four business models of hi-tech entre¬preneurs in Russia: Small deal supporters, Revolutionaries, Conformists, and Isolationists. In the development of medical equipment, it is important that the main customers of medical devices in Russia are state-owned hospitals. One of the most winning strategies for Russian entrepreneurs is the use of ambiguity, i.e., to second- guess the agenda set by government agencies and use official rhetoric in negotiations with officials. One might have expected that, especially in such a situation, imaginaries might be a vehicle for innovation. However, uncertainty about rules and ambiguity in political priorities results in an imaginary drama—imaginaries in med-tech companies do not exist, and neither does innovation.</p> Evgeniya Popova Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Political Economy after Neoliberalism <p>The Journal of Economic Sociology has published an article, "Political Economy after Neoliberalism," by one of the most influential figures in the tradition of New Economic Sociology, Neil Fligstein, and economic historian and comparative political economy scientist Steven Vogel. The article, originally published in Boston Review, was re-posted on the web¬site of the professional online community Economic Sociology &amp; Politi¬cal Economy (ES/PE) and became one of the most-read texts in 2020. The authors offer a broad review of the current literature in the realm of eco¬nomic sociology, economic history, and political economy, and articulate a theoretical and practical alternative to the mainstream economic view of the nature of markets and the role of the state regulation of the economy. The text explores the causes and consequences of the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic and highlights the relationship between the crisis management measures adopted in different countries, their institutional arrangements, and the current balance of power. Fligstein and Vogel define three theoretical principles of the new political economy and then dem-onstrate its heuristic potential by analyzing the responses to the pandemic by the authorities and the United States and German markets. Strong at¬tention is paid to the analysis of the practical consequences of the politi¬cal economy project proposed by the authors: according to Fligstein and Vogel, accumulated knowledge allows the social sciences to participate in determining the preferred development scenarios of modern capitalism.</p> Neil Fligstein, Steven Vogel Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 How the Sense of Community Arises in Marriage: The Logic of Mutuality in the Narratives of Women from Large Families <p>In the proposed article, based on in-depth interviews with women in large families, the author discusses the following hypothesis: in families where, as children are born, conjugality does not give way to household and parenthood, a sense of community in marriage is enhanced. This arises in families where a man, as children are born, becomes more involved in relations with his wife and children, and the relations are developed in the logic of mutuality. Using the results of 22 in-depth interviews with women in large families from Moscow, Arkhangelsk, and Vladimir, the author objectifies this logic by the category of the "mutual sacrifice of the spouse," which indicates the wife's confidence in unmitigated communion and support from her husband. In the social sciences, this category is similar to the concept of the reciprocal gift. Gift commitment theory emphasizes the fundamental distinction between the material and perceived spiritual sides of the exchange, which helps to explain why, despite the factual workload and vulnerability of the mother, which grows as the children are born, she perceives married life in terms of friendship with her husband and community in the family. In conclusion, the author proposes that the logic of mutuality in marriage can become a fruitful source for reflection on the division of labor between the sexes, as opposed to the logics of justice and independence.</p> Ivan Pavlyutkin Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The End of Bureaucracy? New Organizational Forms, Social Media, and Millennials <p class="text">In recent years, Silicon Valley startups have become some of the most successful corporations in the world. They advance the abandonment of bureaucratic control of employees, for example, they do not keep track of what time employees come to work or what they are wearing, and instead delegate decision-making rights to employees and are attentive to their opinions. But what happens behind the closed doors of those companies promoting such openness and the overthrow of the hierarchy and bureaucratic rules? How and by whom are they controlled? The book by Catherine J. Turco (2016) shows how corporate communication, culture, and control actually work in a company run by millennials reared on social media. During her ethnographic research, Turco describes how a new organizational form she calls a “conversational firm” has arisen and succeeded in solving business problems due to cross-hierarchical communication. One of Turko’s main findings is that subverting the hierarchical control of communication does not mean the hierarchical structure of decision making must fall as well. Thus, employees may prefer some bureaucratic practices and insist on them.</p> Daria Asaturyan Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Can We Explain Differences in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption? Review of Theoretical Approaches <p>Alcohol is an important part of the culture of many people, and the patterns of its consumption differ according to the types of drinks people drink, in what circumstances they drink, what kind of meaning drinking offers them, etc. In this article, we decided to classify publications on differences in drinking patterns based on a dominant idea. We highlight the criteria for identifying such patterns: quantitative (depending on the volume and frequency of consumption) and qualitative (depending on the chosen drinks, circumstances, and motives for use). The quantitative criteria make it possible to identify frequently used patterns, such as episodic alcohol consumption in large quantities, binge drinking, sporadic drinking, and light and heavy drinking. Within the framework of the qualitative criteria, Northern, Southern, and Central European types are often distinguished. The emphasis on consumption motives reveals four patterns: reinforcement, coping, conformity, and community. However, researchers tend to understand what explains the differences in consumption patterns. Therefore, in the second part of the article, we turn to the systematization of such explanations based on cultural-anthropological, historical, and structural approaches. In the last part of our article, we show that the approaches we have identified allow us to explain the features of alcohol consumption patterns in Russia and their changes over the past several decades. It can be concluded that the most productive way of analyzing alcohol consumption is the complex application of the approaches we have considered—the identification of patterns based on various criteria and the explanation of their choice by different highlighted approaches.</p> Valeria Kondratenko, Yana Roschina Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Flexible Commuting Patterns by Current Residents of Chelyabinsk <p class="text">Digitization is changing the organization of work. Work is becoming independent of time and place, which affects changes in mobility patterns. This article explores the commuting patterns of current residents of Soviet-designed industrial cities with strictly delineated contours of practice and commuting patterns. Using a case study of the city of Chelyabinsk, this study proposes a typology of residential mobility patterns that varies in relation to employment. For this purpose, Hägerstrand’s theory of the temporal and spatial constraints of mobility was used. By analyzing quantitative data collected in February 2020 through a standardized street survey, three types of commuting patterns were identified: “flexible,” “temporally flexible,” and “regular.” Each type of pattern is described by quantitative characteristics, such as employment sector, form of employment, and place of residence. This study extends the understanding of what commuting patterns in current Russian cities might look like. It demonstrates the dominance of the “temporally flexible” commuting patterns of residents of Chelyabinsk, designed as an industrial center with regular commuting patterns. While the stufy does not provide a certain depth of analysis, it can be taken as a starting point in understanding individual mobility patterns in Russian cities. The results of the study may be of interest to researchers on work and urban mobility, as well as to city planners and policy makers on social and transport issues.</p> Nadezda Krasilnikova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Algorithmic Management in the Platform Economy <p>The platform model is the distinguishing organizational form of the early decades of the twenty-first century. Whereas actors in markets contract, hierarchies command, and networks collaborate, platforms co-opt assets, resources, and activities that are not part of the firm. As a distinctive organizational form, the platform model confronts a distinctive managerial challenge: how to manage value-creating activities that are undertaken on the platform but not in the firm? In a triangular geometry, platform owners co-opt the behavior of providers and users, enrolling them in the practices of algorithmic management without managerial authority having been delegated to them. Acting on their own behalf, the ratings and other activities of providers and consumers are algorithmically translated into rankings and other calculating devices that circulate through feedback loops that are twisted rather than circular. Algorithmic management involves a peculiar kind of cybernetic control because at each fold of the feedback loop accountability can be deflected and denied. Whereas Scientific Management in the early twentieth century offered a legitimating principle for the growth of a new managerial class, algorithmic management in the early twenty-first century is reshaping the managerial class. Its power asymmetries at the organizational level are related to coalitions at the regulatory level in which platform owner and investors are in alliance with platform consumers.</p> David Stark, Ivana Pais Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Subjective Perception of Employment Instability: Is It Bad to Be Unstable? <p>Nowadays in the literature, there are two perspectives on the spread of atypical labor contracts and unstable employment trajectories: some authors insist on the vulnerability of modern employees and the weakening of their bargaining position; others emphasize new opportunities for flexibility and independence from the employer. However, it remains unclear how employees react to these new employment conditions. Is instability a benefit or a sign of vulnerability for them? This discussion is most relevant for skilled young workers, as freedom and flexibility are of great value to them. The authors make an attempt to discover which position is closer to unstable workers in Russia. The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) data for 2014–2018 were used for the analysis. The panel data was used to construct the variable of instability in the labor market, taking into account the previous working status of the respondents (the sample size was 1,507 respondents). The main method of analysis was linear regression. The dependent variables were the components of subjective well-being, and the explanatory variable was the status of employment instability. The results show that employment instability is not related to respondents’ subjective well-being, nor to job insecurity. No differences in the subjective assessments of stable and unstable employees with different skills and income levels were found. The findings allow us to state that employment instability is not perceived by Russian employees as a distinct situation in the labor market, or as referring to negative or positive type of work or social position of an individual.</p> Elena Gasiukova, Anastasia Petrova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Modernization on Social Capital: Evidence from Dagestan <p>The paper scrutinizes the differences between the traditional and modernistic social groups of Dagestan, Russia—a region in the south of Russia that is only now undergoing the process of modernization. As an important factor in economic development in developed countries, social capital and trust often have a negative impact on the level of well-being in traditional communities. The research, based on a sociological survey of residents of the Republic of Dagestan, shows that this pattern is due to the fact that in traditional society, the radius of trust (which is one of the most important components of social capital) extends only to the immediate environment. This is why social capital in such communities produces lower returns. Moreover, using variables associated with the process of breaking traditional norms (residence and birth in the city, modernist religious beliefs, importance of free time, and desire to educate children in self-expression values and foster values of obedience), this article argues that the modernization process leads to the destruction of closed social capital, expressed in the decline of trust in relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and representatives of the same nationality. At the same time, the transformation of traditional norms has a different effect on open social capital—having more modernistic values is positively linked to generalized trust, while being a part of modernistic social groups demonstrates a negative link. The results enable us to conclude that the high level of social capital recorded in other studies in the North Caucasus (and in Dagestan, in particular) is actually associated with a high level of trust in the surrounding environment and is not as productive as in other regions.</p> Daniil Sitkevich Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><span id="page91R_mcid238" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 210.021px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.785772);">Dear colleagues,</span></span></p> <p><span id="page91R_mcid239" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 257.266px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.766398);">At present, we are still hoping to escape from the shock of the pandemic in the near future while also expecting </span></span><span id="page91R_mcid240" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 280.888px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.787744);">the possibility of a third wave. Meanwhile, let us turn to a new issue of our journal. </span></span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p><span dir="ltr">Dear colleagues,</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr">On the day when this issue of our journal will be published, the students of the HSE University are expected </span><span dir="ltr">to return from distant studies to their classes. We believe that this return is for good despite the obvious fact </span><span dir="ltr">that the pandemic is still with us.</span></p> Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p class="text">On the basis of the integration of A. Hirschman's “voice-exit” theory and the author's theory of the distribution economy, the universal nature of the institution of complaints as a mechanism for generating new social practices is substantiated, and an analysis of civil complaints is carried out. In restricted access orders, complaints are an attribute of administrative management, while in open access orders, the civil complaints employed are not only received by the authorities but are also presented in public forms. In contrast to the widespread understanding of complaints as a socio-psychological phenomenon, this article reveals the mechanism of their active influence on the formation of the institutional environment throughout its historical development, which explains the revival of this institution as a feedback signal in new digital and communicative forms in the modern Russian economy. To solve this task, we used a methodology of analyzing institutional changes as “a path dependent on the previous development,” which traces the formation and development of the basic institution of complaints at three stages of the evolution of the distribution economy in Russia, as well as the institution’s acquisition of a modern state on the basis of new platforms and authorized public events. As a result, there has been a gradual transition to civil forms of complaints, which include different types of public activity to present unresolved problems. It is established that local protests on socio-economic issues, in fact, are an unformalized part of the institution of complaints and actively influence decision-making in the modern management model.</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs Private Sector Myths (an excerpt) <p>In the book The Entrepreneurial State, Mariana Mazzucato challenges the widespread idea that the State cannot pick winners, that it is clumsy, bureaucratic and incapable of entrepreneurial risk taking. Her analysis is not just Keynesian; it is also Schumpeterian. The role of the State is not limited to interventions in the macroeconomy as a “market fixer” or as the passive financer of public R &amp; D. The State is also seen as entrepreneur, risk taker and market creator. Mazzucato’s argument goes well beyond the role played by government in countries that have recently forged ahead (Japan in the 1980s or South Korea in the 1990s) to focus on the role played by the public sector agencies of the United States, the wealthiest country in the world and an active promoter of “free markets,” in making risky investments behind the Internet and in funding most of the crucial elements behind the “stars” of the information revolution, companies such as Google and Apple.<br>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes Chapter 1 of the book, “From Crisis Ideology to the Division of Innovative Labour,” in which the State is presented as an entrepreneurial agent, one taking on the most risky and uncertain investments in the economy. The State does not “derisk” as if it has a “magic wand” that makes risks disappear. It takes on risks, shaping and creating new markets. The author displays the role the State has played in the past, in areas like Silicon Valley, and the role that it can play in the future in areas like the “green revolution.”</p> Mariana MAZZUCATO Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Consumption of Cultural Goods in Russia: Scale, Determinants, Differentiation <p>This paper is the first in the Russian economic and sociological literature that provides a general stylized picture of the consumption of cultural goods in Russia using microdata from representative household surveys. The empirical basis of analysis is Rosstat’s Complex Observation of the Living Conditions of the Population for 2011–2018, which so far has been ignored by researchers. Four main kinds of cultural goods are distinguished—cinema, theater, concerts and museums—and the probabilities and intensity of their consumption are assessed. The analysis shows that in Russia at present, about every second adult consumes some cultural goods during the year. Cinema is the most popular good, followed by concerts, theater and museums. A regular audience is approximately one-fifth of the total audience. The primary focus of the paper is on evaluating the contributions of various factors of demand for cultural goods. There is also a detailed discussion of another important behavioral question: to what extent does demand by individuals for any one cultural good stimulate their demand for all other ones? In the econometric part of the paper, two types of models are constructed and evaluated: ordinary logit (for likelihood of consumption) and multinomial logit (for intensity of consumption). The results obtained show that two groups of factors make the highest contributions: on the one hand, economic (such as income), and, on the other, cultural (such as education, occupation and experience with the Internet). In the Russian context there is a visible empirical regularity: the higher the income of individuals, the more active they are culturally. The wealthiest groups go to the movies two and a half times more often, to the theaters seven times more often, to concerts twice as often, and to museums six times more often than the poorest ones.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov, Natalia Demina Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 What is Wrong with the Concept of Job Readiness in Higher Education? <p>Equipping students with employability skills has become a novel mission of universities since the late 21st century. Discussion on how to make students more job-ready has appeared as a core of the education policy agenda. The roots of the job readiness agenda in higher education (HE) are mostly studied through the lens of changes in the HE sector and are regarded as a result of the massification and vocationalisation of HE. But these explanations only implicitly consider labor market changes that trigger the employability agenda. This paper challenges the job readiness agenda in HE, especially the pressure being put on HE institutions that are expected to fit students to employer’s needs. In order to find the grounds and justification for the employability agenda, I study its cornerstone theses through the lens of labor market theories. The research reveals that not all of these theses are well grounded in labor market theories and empirics. On the one hand, the employability narrative is justified by the decreased signaling function of education credentials and the increasing demand for universal skills and updated technical skills. On the other hand, alarmism concerning skill deficits and shortages that places pressure on HE doesn't fully match theories and empirical evidence. The most relevant concept of employability and job readiness could be elaborated in the framework of universal competencies or 21st-century skills. Being job-ready means being prepared for a flexible career and lifelong learning instead of being fitted to short-term requirements. This conceptual framework establishes a shared responsibility for developing skills and managing skill gaps between individuals, employers and educational institutions.</p> Vera Maltseva Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Exception that Proves the Rule: The Development of Central Banks as an Example of Successful Institutional Reforms in Post-Communist Countries <p>Juliet Johnson is a researcher of politics and finance in the post-Soviet countries and chairperson of the Department of Political Science at McGill University. Her book Priests of Prosperity informs us about the history of the development of central banks in post-communist countries. This story is one of the most interesting episodes of post-Soviet institution building, presenting a rare example of the successful import of an institution birthed in developed democracies. The creation of independent central banks in the early 1990s was accompanied by the introduction of advanced economic approaches that did not exist in these countries. However, this process has completely succeeded, even in those countries where other reforms did not succeed. Johnson recreates this story in an extremely reliable and detailed way. Over a 15-year period, the author conducted more than 160 interviews in 17 countries; she also examined five of them more closely by using a case study and statistics. This investigation contains a large amount of unique empirical material. In addition, it presents the author's own theoretical approach. Johnson's book is not only an example of serious large research, but is also an example of using the institution transplantation model. The book received a number of positive reviews in leading journals on the post-Soviet region as well as prestigious international awards. This review briefly presents the contents of the entire book, containing the opinions of some authors while also discussing in detail certain points of the book that seemed most interesting to the author of this review.</p> Egor Korobkin Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Participation in Professional Training and Non-Economic Effects for Workers in Russia <p class="text">The goal of the paper is to identify the relationship between participation in professional training financed by the employer and its non-economic effects: subjective control and job satisfaction (including satisfaction with pay and with professional growth opportunities). According to the human capital theory, participation in professional training accumulates both specific and general human capital; workers develop their skills and become more flexible in the labor market. We test the hypothesis that participation in professional training will be positively interrelated with employees’ subjective control and job satisfaction. The empirical base of the study is formed by the Russian Longitudinal Household Monitoring Survey (RLMS—HSE), waves 19 and 20 (2010 and 2011). The analysis identified positive effects only in the case of subjective control, but not for job satisfaction. This partially supports our hypothesis. The results show that workers who participated in professional training, compared to the workers who did not, will have a higher level of subjective control, i.e., workers feel more in control of their circumstances at work and in life. However, no effect of training was found in the case of job satisfaction. A possible reason is that training is not sufficiently integrated in the short career structures of low- or middle-skill jobs. Therefore, participation in professional training does not widen professional mobility opportunities in this labor market segment and thus is not associated with higher job satisfaction.</p> Natalia Karmaeva, Andrey Zakharov Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Create not to Commercialize: On the Everyday Practices of Russian Technopreneurs <p>What is the reason for the low commercialization of high-tech innovations in Russia? Given the Russian engineers’ high scores on initiative, creativity, and technical competence, why is there no successful launch of manufactured—often amazing—inventions on domestic and international markets? Does Russia have a specific way of development in the sphere of high technologies? The research team of sociologists from the European University at St. Petersburg (EUSP)—Olga Bychkova, Boris Gladarev, Oleg Harkhordin, and Zhanna Tsinman—offer answers to these questions in their book, Sci-Fi Worlds of Russian Hi-Tech. Based on a large set of in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs from Russia, as well as Finland, Taiwan, and South Korea, the authors’ focus is not on institutions but on the technopreneurs themselves, who update the hightech markets on their daily practices, ways of social interaction, worldviews, interactions with developers, technical prototypes, and themselves. Employing the concepts from the theory of practice and science and technology studies (STS), the authors have attempted to re-examine the life worlds of Russian technopreneurs and to align their individual narratives with the sociocultural context in which the daily life of developers is embedded. The researchers show the way that engineers live, in which value categories make sense of their work and daily practices, and how it may determine the technological development of the Russian economy and the whole society at the macro level. The book is filled with detailed and thorough descriptions of methodology and fieldwork, rich and illustrative quotations from the narratives of innovators, and the justification for the theoretical framework of the study. It is addressed to a wide readership and will be useful for sociologists, including those interested in research on science and technology, and for the general public who strives to open up the daily life of those whose works try to “crack the laws of the universe.”</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 School Socio-economic Composition as a Factor of Educational Inequality <p>The socioeconomic composition of schools is considered one of the most significant factors of educational inequality at the school level. Most of the reviewed works demonstrate a positive relation between the student population’s socioeconomic status and educational outcomes. At the same time, a number of authors confirm that this effect is a statistical artifact and is significant due to the limitations of existing studies’ methodology. Despite a fairly large number of works, a few questions remain: How is the composition effect formed? Under what conditions does it occur? What mechanisms involve interconnection? How can the negative effect of school composition be minimized? Is it about causality? In Russian studies, this subject area is out of sight. In this article, the author aims to provide a systematic analysis of relevant works with a focus on developing recommendations and further directions for empirical research. In this review, the author introduces the term socioeconomic composition and describes the main approaches for measuring it, taking into account the choice of the composition indicator, aggregation method, and data analysis method. Following assumptions about the presence of an indirect effect of composition and methodological recommendations, the possible mechanisms of the effect at the peer, teacher, and school levels are described. Based on the analysis of critical works, the prerequisites for research design are formed. The author concludes the paper with a summary of the recommendations and substantiates the scientific and practical importance of studying the causal relation between the school composition and educational results.</p> Yuliya Kersha Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ‘Alien Elections’: Neighboring State News on the 2018 Russian Presidential Elections <p>News media tend to reflect voices in the political establishment while covering international events. Is it still true when almost half of the national audience speak the language of the country featured in the coverage? In this paper, we present an analysis of 19.5k news messages collected from Russian-language Ukrainian news outlets covering the 2018 presidential elections in Russia. Using a mixed-method approach (topic modeling and qualitative reading), we identify key topics and stories and evaluate the extent of personalization in the election coverage. We find three central angles: the focus on polls and election results, election preparations in Crimea, and Vladimir Putin’s victory. The elections are linked predominantly to Crimean issues through the date of the elections, each candidate’s stance on the subject, the election management in the region, and other countries’ reactions to the results. Such coverage has an accusatory bias; it stresses the legal status of the Crimean referendum and the Russian authorities’ actions and reports the pressures on locals by authorities, especially the Crimean Tatars. Not linked directly to Crimea, other angles are less emotionally charged. Political personalization of the discussion has a contradictory nature. On one hand, the overwhelming majority of the messages mention public figures. On the other hand, the coverage of the figures is limited and omits their traits. Moreover, at times, public figures are replaced by non-personalized symbols (e.g., Kremlin, Russian invaders). However, if the former’s coverage is predominantly neutral, the latter’s coverage is more prone to negative and loaded statements.</p> Anastasia Kazun, Anastasia Kazun Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Capitalism without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy (an excerpt) <p>Capitalism without Capital by Jonathan Haskel and Stian Westlake explores the changes in the types of investments that have occurred in almost all developed countries over the last forty years. If tangible investments predominated in the past, most investments are intangible at present, meaning that money is spent on buying and creating knowledgebased products, including computer software, research and development, design, works of art, market research, learning, and new business processes. The authors attempt to answer why the economy in which intangible assets are intensively used is so different from the economy where tangible assets dominate. The authors conclude that these changes are explained by the basic properties of the intangible assets and have resulted in long-lasting stagnation, lower economic growth, increasing inequality, and difficulties in public policies for economic and financial sectors. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the introductory chapter, ‘Valuation, the Old-Fashioned Ways: Or a Thousand Years in Essex’ from Capitalism without Capital, where the authors discuss the meaning of investments, define the distinctions between tangible and intangible assets, and explain why some basic properties of intangible assets generate such dramatic changes in the contemporary economy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural Professions in Modern-Day Russia: Statistical Portrait of the Workers <p>In this study, we aim to provide a statistical portrait of employment in the cultural field with regard to occupations on the Russian labor market. The data from the ‘Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions’ are used to illustrate the main differences in the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of culturally employed respondents and other professional groups. Additionally, the most relevant factors that may have an impact on individuals’ probability to be cultural workers are analyzed. Our study is based on the theoretical frameworks of U. Beck, R. Florida, J. Urry, and Z. Bauman. We also consider the possible Soviet legacy of the contemporary Russian culture, which may interconnect with labor conditions in this field, using S. Fitzpatrick’s works. We also provide an overview of other relevant studies. Our findings show that a larger number of cultural workers among the respondents are librarians, archivists, teachers of music and art schools, linguists, museum workers, journalists, and writers. The results on the statistical portrait display that on average, the cultural workers are highly educated married women in their forties or older who live predominantly in the largest regions of the Russian Federation (Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg). Almost three-quarters of the group have relevant education. They are mostly regular full-time employees with a daytime work schedule. We have also found that the most influential factors for becoming cultural workers are the region of residence and relevant professional education.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Психологические причины коррупции: роль тревоги <p>This study is devoted to answering two questions: (1) Do individuals’ worries and sufferings correlate with the acceptability of corruption from their perspectives? (2) Does this correlation differ by country in terms of corruption levels? We focus on analyzing the correlation between macro and micro worries, on one hand, and individual acceptability of corrupt behavior, on the other hand. This study is based on the data from the 6th-wave World Value Survey. We identified three groups of countries based on the corruption perception index: countries with low-level corruption (Australia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, and Sweden), countries with medium-level corruption (Belarus, China, South Korea, Malaysia, and Romania), and countries with high-level corruption (Russia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Thailand). For the purposes of our analysis, we used structural equation modeling. We have found that macro and micro worries are significantly correlated with the acceptability of corruption. Our analysis shows that the more the people worry about themselves or their families, the more they accept corruption. The people who worry about society are more likely to disapprove of corruption. However, the significance of these links varies, depending on the group of countries. For the countries with low-level corruption, the correlation is significant only for the link between micro worries and the acceptability of corruption. The countries with high-level corruption show a significant correlation only for the link between macro worries and the acceptability of corruption. For countries with medium-level corruption and for Russia, the acceptability of corruption is significantly correlated with both micro and macro worries.</p> Anna Mironova Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,</p> <p>This new issue of our journal comes out during these difficult times. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is on its way. It brings new challenges, which are comparable with those of the previous wave. Lockdowns and distant communications are returning. We hope that you and your friends and relatives will survive this time safely.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 A Loosening Grip: Why Do Autocracies Engage in the Neoliberalization of Their Welfare Sectors? <p>Despite the wealth of studies on neoliberalism, research on why authoritarian states engage in processes of neoliberalization remains scarce. Therefore, our article seeks to explore why autocracies use neoliberal power practices, which, as suggested by Foucauldian governmentality approach to neoliberalism, are understood as governance techniques aimed primarily at disciplining and controlling populations through promoting the free market as a key form of societal organization. Empirically, these power practices can manifest in a state’s withdrawal from the provision of welfare services. However, scholars have argued that control over the public sector is essential to the maintenance of authoritarian regimes, and hence, governments must have compelling reasons to opt for its neoliberalization. In this study, we employ three mutually nonexclusive theoretical perspectives that suggest incentives that may motivate autocrats to retreat from the welfare sector; these are the authoritarian legitimation, authoritarian modernization, and political economy perspectives. By means of a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we tested the foregoing theories on a sample of 42 autocracies active during 1980–2005. The results revealed that authoritarian modernization theory has the highest explanatory capacity, as it identifies two distinct pathways to public sector neoliberalization—internal and external policy considerations or one of the two—while the political economy perspective was an important theoretical concern in several cases. Overall, our paper contributes to research on the governmentality approach to neoliberalism and serves as a departure point for further investigations into neoliberal authoritarianism.</p> Ilia Viatkin, Kristina Komarova Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Why do the Rich Consume More Discreetly? A Theory of the Aspirational Class <p>This paper is a review of The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspira-tional Class, written by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett and published in 2017. Prof. Currid-Halkett leads the Public Policy Department at the University of Southern California. Her research interests tend to focus on the arts, culture, the consumer economy, and the role of culture in geographic and class divides. Her main idea, portrayed through this book, is that, at the beginning of the 21st century, conspicuous consumption becomes more democratic. In other words, due to the mass-production economy, luxury goods have become significantly more accessible. The abundance of leisure no longer indicates a higher status. As a result, the leisure class is substituted by the aspirational class, whose members reveal their position through cultural signifiers and value systems. The objective of this book is to accurately analyse the portrait of this aspirational class, which transmits completely different consumer behaviour when compared to Veblen’s leisure class. The book combines both quantitative and qualitative research de-signs. Elizabeth Currid-Halkett examines the nationally representative Consumer Expenditure Survey from 1996 to 2014 (covering 35 000 American households per year). In addition, she draws on 15 interviews to explore Americans’ con-sumer practices in greater depth.&nbsp;This review seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions re-garding studies of consumer behaviour, social stratification, and social class the-ories. The first part of the paper covers the scientific background of the book and its methodological framework. The second part describes its theoretical frame along with statistical evidence and findings. The paper concludes by highlighting key limitations of the study and suggesting further research directions.</p> Irina Kolegova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Conceptualizing Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants: A Systematic Literature Review <p>Job satisfaction is considered an important aspect of employee behavior. This article focuses on a critical analysis of the accompanying literature to determine the various factors that shape job satisfaction and to gauge their relative signifi-cance in conditioning employee behavior. The conceptualizations of job satisfac-tion in the existing literature are multitudinous, reflecting the breadth of critical perspectives on the subject. A systematic literature review, therefore, consisted of: (a) isolating databases and a set of publications; (b) selecting publications and developing a database; and (c) conducting bibliometric analysis, content analy-sis, and testing the relevance of results to further research. The review included publications from the years 2000–2018 and covered psychology, sociology, eco-nomics, and management science. Analysis of previous theoretical publications and empirical studies reveals that they are not without their cognitive and meth-odological limitations. Even at the level of definition, despite numerous criti-cal attempts to clarify exactly what constitutes job satisfaction, an unambiguous and clear-cut conception has yet to surface. Equally, critical consensus is lack-ing among researchers over what contributes to job satisfaction, and divergent research approaches have been adopted as a result. Indeed, despite the rising popularity of job satisfaction studies, some of these factors have yet to be ex-plored fully, while some research has yielded contradictory results regarding the strength of the influence of certain factors on job satisfaction. This paper fills this gap and, through a systematic analysis of the literature, indicates the direction in which current research is headed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Joanna Wyrwa, Jerzy Kaźmierczyk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Phenomenon of Downshifting in Central and Eastern European Countries: Case Studies from Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia <p>The article introduces discussions of sociocultural post-material practices that are connected with downshifting and with efforts to thrive in the shadow of dominating forms in contemporary societies. The author extends her conceptual framework beyond ecology, sociology, and the politics of sustainable lifestyles and draws from Anthony Giddens’s “reflexive project of the self.” The introduced notion of “experiencing downshift” is understood as the reflexiveexperience by those individuals, who reshape their lives to reflect its “authentic” meaning, which is connected to the resignation from high material living standards. The article offers the concept of identity as central rather than peripheral to downshifting research.<br>Following a longitudinal panel study on the processes of far-reaching and radical changes in the lifestyles of 31 downshifters, five areas were examined: motives for the change, the character of the change, reactions of others, balance of benefits and losses, and decision consistency. Findings suggest that the contested meaning of (material) life success leads to the reframing of value priorities and the reconstruction of personal and social identities. Ideals of downshift move away from productive efforts and consumption-based identities toward practices of being reflective, self-aware, and fostering well-being, which is variously characterized by harmony, pleasure, and creativity. Most of them are not unique to downshifting, but this is not (as I have emphasized) a limitation but simply a chance for the movement to get out of the frame of a politicized, radicalized critique of capitalist growth society and make consumers appreciate that what they already do could be potentially supportive of downshift transformation.</p> Aneta Duda Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 XXII April International conference on the development of the economy and society, Higher School of Economics, April 13–23, 2021 <p>XXII Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества, проводимая Национальным исследовательским университетом «Высшая школа экономики», состоится 13−23 апреля 2021 г. Председатель Программного комитета АМНК — научный руководитель НИУ ВШЭ профессор Е. Г. Ясин.</p> <p><br>Конференция посвящена широкому кругу актуальных проблем экономического и социального развития страны. Основную часть выступлений на АМНК составляют научные доклады российских и зарубежных учёных. Важной частью программы конференции являются специальные мероприятия, которые проводятся в формате пленарных заседаний и круглых столов с участием членов Правительства Российской Федерации, государственных деятелей, представителей бизнеса, российских и зарубежных экспертов.</p> <p><br>В сложившихся эпидемиологических условиях XXI Апрельская конференция прошла в распределённом формате, что означало совмещение различных форм проведения и более длительные сроки проведения. Приём заявок на XXII АМНК был открыт 21 сентября 2020 г. Планируется, что конференция пройдёт 13−23 апреля 2021 г. в смешанном формате и объединит как онлайн-, так и офлайн-мероприятия.</p> Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 “Difficult Money”: The Question for the Next Revision of the Nature of Money <p>This book, edited by N. Bandelj, F. Wherry, and V. Zelizer, comprises a series of articles united in a collective monograph; it opens the reader to a multilateral view of the nature of money as a system of meanings and signs, and clarifies the mechanisms of the formation and functioning of financial flows and institutions. Trends associated with the active dissemination of new forms of money that are not tied to a specific financial system, as well as the expanding practice of the consumption of goods and services related to issues of morality and ethics, are becoming relevant. The authors were tasked with revising the conceptual framework for the study of money, and the main goal was to show the principles of the functioning of money in the financial system and, to a greater extent, in the system of social relations. In the book, the conceptual framework is examined in five sections, each of which provides sociological, cultural, anthropological, and historical perspectives. The authors of 14 chapters illustrate the connection of their theses with the approach of Viviana Zelizer, as outlined in a number of her famous works, and the analysis of money itself is based on the subject of the fungibility of mediums, functions, and meanings (earmarking) of monetary units, the understanding of financial accounting by people themselves (mental accounting), and the influence of the state on this process. This review aims to define the logic of the presentation of the material in the book in order to better understand the theoretical and empirical principles set forth in the chapters.</p> Stanislav Pashkov Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Access to Modern Medical Technologies in Russia and Europe <p>The authors discuss the results of a comparative analysis of the access to medical technologies in Russia and the countries of the European Union. The study included the most popular diagnostic technologies: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). The key indicators of access to this kind of equipment are its distribution—the number of units per share of the population—and the frequency of use of existing installations by patients. The research information base consisted of Russian and European statistics for the period from the 1980s to the present.</p> <p>A comparative analysis of the accessibility of the technologies under consideration in Russia and European countries based on these indicators allowed us to come to the following conclusions.A review of the literature confirms that the development of public health in the modern era is largely determined by the introduction and widespread use of new medical technologies. Among them, the important role of diagnostic technologies play a part in the article, but access to these diagnostic procedures remains limited in many countries. As a comparative analysis of European countries shows, Russia is significantly inferior to almost all EU countries in the level of accessibility of these procedures due to the insufficient number of CT, MRI, and PET scanners and the low rates of their use. The technological lag in Russian health care is associated with low levels of state funding for the sector given that, in the state’s policy, social spending is less important than other areas of budget financing. Limited access to modern diagnostic tools prevents the rapid and high-quality determination of the causes of many diseases and, consequently, their successful treatment. In addition, a significant shortage of modern technological equipment can aggravate the problem of social inequalities in health, which is clearly manifested in Russian society. Thus, well-off people with the ability to spend significant funds on receiving modern medical services will benefit, while people with low incomes will be forced to be content with less-effective procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lyudmila Panova, Anastasia Panova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Value of Everything. Making and Taking in the Global Economy (an excerpt) <p>According Prof. Mazzucato, to understand economic growth it is necessary to return to issues relating to what wealth means and where value comes from. The aim of this book is to reinvigorate the debate on value, which traditionally was—and should still be—at the core of economic thinking. Prof. Mazzucato points to the fact that in economics, various types of economic activities related to value extraction (or even value destruction) are camouflaged as or pretend to represent value creation. This results in a huge increase in social inequality and a significant decrease in investments in the real economy. Understanding the negative consequences of value extraction requires clarification of what is really taken. Which social, economic, and organizational conditions are necessary for value production? The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes “Introduction: Making versus Taking,” where Prof. Mazzucato makes distinctions between value making and value extraction (e.g. tax evasions, share buy-backs, etc.). It also defines “value creation” as the ways in which different types of resources are established and interact to produce new goods and services. Finally, the introduction provides details of how the book is structured.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Мариана Маццукато Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Is Industrial Agriculture Sustainable During Climate Change and Ecological Threats? <p>Russia has experienced food revolutions in production, distribution, and consumption since 2000. These revolutions have transformed the food system, but systemic changes are not complete — a sustainable agricultural system is not likely in Russia anytime soon; the effects of climate change are likely to worsen and force further revolutionary change to Russia’s food system, which in the short-term could cause food insecurity. The state retains its key role in regulating the food system, primarily due to considering food security a factor of national security, has been achieved. The Russian statist discourse on food security, which has intensified under the Western sanctions and pandemic restrictions, ignores the challenges that the global agro-industrial sector faces at the same time being the source of anthropogenic changes. Moreover, this discourse rarely takes into account environmental challenges for the Russian agro-industrial sector. The article shows the relationship between climate/ecological changes and the dominant industrial agriculture not in the form of alarmist statements, but by describing the social-economic-ecological context, in which the research questions about current and future restrictions and consequences of industrial agriculture should be asked. The article presents examples of sustainable agriculture in Russia, identifies obstacles to moving away from industrial agriculture, and considers possible scenarios for the transition to sustainable agriculture.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Stephen Wegren, Irina Trotsuk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, this new issue of our journal is published during difficult times. The second wave of the covid-19 pandemic is here, and it brings new challenges comparable to those encountered during the previous wave. Lockdowns and communicating from a distance are back. We sincerely hope that you and your friends and relatives will remain safe during this time.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Types of Financial Disagreements in Families: Qualitative Evidence from Russia <p>Financial disagreements have been previously identified in the literature as the main predictor of divorce in families as well as the most difficult and prolonged type of disagreement among spouses. However, the topic of financial conflicts between spouses remains undertheorized and has been insufficiently studied empirically in Russia. This study attempts to fill this gap in answering the question of how financial disagreements in families can be classified. To resolve this research problem, 35 Russian married or cohabiting couples were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with each of the partners separately to determine their positions and compare their views within the couple. The results show that financial disagreements are normalized phenomena in the life course of Russian couples. However, the issue seems to be very sensitive, and the qualitative methodology allowed for the detection that partners may feel embarrassed and stressed while discussing the reasons for financial conflicts. Nevertheless, five types of financial disagreements were identified based on their underlying reasons: price conflicts, conflicts about necessity, conflicts of goals, conflicts due to a lack of planning, and conflicts of values. The last type seems to be one of the most difficult and unpleasant types of family conflicts, as it shows that partners hold different and often incompatible positions regarding the family’s finances. This result highlights the importance of using a relational sociology approach while studying marital financial disagreements. Also, the identified typology can serve as a guide for studying financial conflicts in families more deeply and for family therapy and divorce prevention.</p> Polina Zhidkova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, the very first issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology came out in September 2000, exactly twenty years ago. It was one of the pioneers among the academic e-journals in Russia at the time, when the very notion of ‘electronic journal’ was not widely recognized. We contributed to a new standard, which became quite common many years later</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The paper describes an experiment aimed at creating a categorical and interactive stratification schema for the population a major Russian city (St. Petersburg). We used the data on friendship ties of 3200 adults to create a network of ties among occupations. We then used the Louvaine community detection algorithm to identify six clusters. The clusterization obtained distinguished between skilled manual, routine non-manual and professional occupations demonstrating that close social ties are more likely to be found within, rather than between, their boundaries. However, in contrast to Goldthorpe’s class schema, the algorithm also identified cleavages between sectors of professional occupations (pedagogical/ artistic, clerical, etc.) The boundaries between such groups of occupations are reproduced inter-generationally even in the absence of considerable economic inequality between them. We demonstrate that clusters of occupations differ in their lifestyles and consumption patterns (e.g. consumption of highbrow culture) even controlling for age, gender, and education. We interpret the clusterization as evidence of the existence of milieus confined within institutional barriers of social sectors. Such milieus, rather than classes, serve as the building blocks of social structure defined through intensity of interaction or lifestyles.</p> Mikhail Sokolov, Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The Russian practice of implementing the decisions of administrative authorities, including challenging them in the judicial system, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of institutional changes on the effectiveness of legal norms. This article is aimed at describing the main features of the Russian system of contesting the decisions of administrative authorities (in this case, we consider cases of contesting indictments of an antimonopoly body); it also considers key parameters that are characteristic of Russia as a country in a transitional stage of institutional development. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Arbitration Card File of the Federal Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation on decisions of the Russian arbitration courts of first instance with respect to contesting the decisions of the antimonopoly body on all types of charges for the period 2012–2018. For the indicated period, a sample of 14,790 decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance was formed, which covered different subjects of the Russian Federation. The considered statistics of contesting antitrust decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance demonstrate a high level of differentiation of the institution of judicial regulation regarding disputes arising from the relationship between the antimonopoly body and companies. Subsequently, such features become some of the essential parameters that determine the differences in the processes of law enforcement and the quality of the institutional environment. At the same time, significant differences in the levels of judges' workload relative to average values make it possible to determine both the insufficient and excessive composition of judges, both in general for the courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and for groups of judges considering disputes arising from administrative legal relations.</p> Elena Sidorova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Testing and Being Tested in Pandemic Times <p>The coronavirus pandemic is witness to a great proliferation of two types of tests. The first type is testing —– new medical diagnostic tests as well as epidemiological models that simulate and project the course of the virus. In the second type, actors, organizations, and institutions are being tested in this moment of social and political crisis. This essay analyzes the similarities and differences between these two major types of tests in order to understand their entanglements in the crisis. In the process, we find a great diversity of tests operating in multiple registers, themselves not clearly demarcated, often combining and sometimes conflating, for example, scientific and public discourse. The study opens by identifying three aspects of testing, drawn from the sociology of testing. First, tests are frequently proxies (or projections) that stand for something. Second, a test is a critical moment that stands out – whether because it is a moment deliberately separated out or because it is a puzzling or troublesome “situation” that disrupts the flow of social life. Third, when someone or something is put to the test, of interest is whether it stands up to the challenge. These insights serve as the building blocks for addressing three major issues – representation, selection, and accountability – regarding testing in the time of the coronavirus crisis. In this moment we see a new model of testing: from statistical calculation of risk in a population to algorithmic prediction about the riskiness of particular persons.</p> David Stark Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Sticky Economy’s Social Consequences <p>The book Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems is the answer of the 2019 Nobel laureates in Economics Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo to the fundamental challenges of modernity. Its pages are devoted to the questions: why do economists and other social researchers offer ineffective responses to global challenges? What are the dangers of stereotypical thinking and outdated economic schemes and theories? Why can't we rely only on the scientist's intuition? What is the power of painstaking social research based on experimental methods and careful processing of facts? Why are there no universal recipes for economic growth? Why is each national variant of socioeconomic development unique? What role do traditions and values play in these options? Why does the growth of income inequality turn into a polarization of ideologies and political positions, leading to an increase in intolerance, racism, tribalization, and so on? How do ideological approaches and populism become a distorting lens of reality? Why do the anger and despair associated with personal injuries and failures turn into anti-immigrant rhetoric and wallbuilding? Why does the idea of a universal basic income not find empirical support and what can replace it? All readers and researchers who are interested in these issues will be introduced to a large-scale, thorough study based on the generalization and analysis of a wide range of social surveys and other studies with the widest regional coverage. The authors strive to dispense with the prevailing stereotypes in science, relying only on facts and their experimental confirmation. The book is written in a very lucid literary style, with a certain amount of humor.</p> Наталия Мещерякова Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Arhythmic Tempo: Dynamics of Readiness to Join the Collective Actions in Russia (1996–2019) <p>The propensity of the public to protest is a dynamic process, the direction of which determines the level of political stability. Aggregate indicators of the readiness to act collectively against declining standards of life can be used as a thermostat that indicates the level of economic grievances in society. What explains these dynamics? Do incremental changes in objective economic indicators such as inflation or unemployment matter the most, or is it the subjective evaluation of the situation in the country that drives protest attitudes? In this paper, I argue that two mechanisms link inflation and unemployment to the readiness to join economic protests: first, high levels of both indicators increase the gap between actual and desired consumption levels; second, high levels of inflation and unemployment signal the lack of governmental competence. I also argue that the subjective evaluation of the direction of the country has an independent effect on the aggregate level of readiness to join the collective actions with economic demands. Statistical analysis based on the autoregressive model with distributed lag (ADL) confirms the hypothesis of the consumer price index and unemployment’s lagged impact on the readiness to protest, while public optimism exhibits both short- and long-term effects on the protest mood. The analysis also reveals the high level of persistence in the dynamics of protest attitudes. The study contributes to the discussion on the determinants of the mobilization and significance of objective and subjective economic grievances.</p> Andrey Semenov Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 International Workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy,” Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, NRU HSE, Moscow, Russia, July 2–3, 2020 <p>The international workshop ‘The Varieties of Power in the Economy’ was held from July 3 to 4, 2020 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar was organized by the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology (LSES) at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. The seminar primarily aimed to initiate a discussion on power practices, modes of influence, compliance, and governance structures in the economy. The keynote speakers of the workshop were Alena Ledeneva, Professor of Politics and Society at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (University College London, UK) and Valery Yackubovich, Professor at the Management Department (SSEC Business School, France). In their lectures they shared their understanding of the topics and how they can be incorporated in various conceptual frameworks within economic sociology. Apart from LSES, the seminar engaged researchers from various research institutions, backgrounds, and traditions. Invited speakers included Elena Bogdanova (University of Gothenburg), Tamara Kusimova (Central European University), Aleksei Pobedonostsev (The European University Institute in Florence), Olga Sidenko (Voronezh State University), Daria Shcheglova (HSE University—Institute of Education), Maria Tysiachniouk (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Ulla Paper, Stanislav Klimovich, and Katharina Bluhm (Freie Universität Berlin), and Maya Shmidt (Uppsala University). The researchers took a closer look at their academic fields and identified the issues of power practices, forms of influence, and control in economic exchange. By examining completely different social spheres and institutional fields, the participants discussed the ambivalence of power and the variety of power relations and practices in the economy.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Homo Sapiens Socialis <p>Homo sapiens is the greatest mystery of science. The main property of this biological species is the mind, but what are the laws of consciousness and how does ignorance of these laws hinder the development of ideas about various spheres of functioning of society? These and other relevant issues of cognitive science are tackled in the book Minds Make Societies: How Cognition Explains the World Humans Create by Pascal Boyer, a professor at the University of Washington. This work is reviewed so that potential readers can understand how convincing the author is in solving the tasks he sets—the problems of a new science, the foundations of which he intends to lay. The French-American evolutionary psychologist poses six questions: What is the basis of intergroup conflicts? Why do we need information? Why do religions exist? What is natural family? How can society be fair? Can our minds comprehend society? In answering these questions, Boyer uses a variety of facts from various disciplines of natural science and humanities. The scholar seeks to show and refute the prejudices of many prevailing concepts, for example, the traditional opposition between nature and culture, which has dominated for several centuries. The anthropologist provides a lot of fascinating data, including from personal field experience, and does so using simple language. However, in the end, most hypotheses are explained by human evolution and the need for groups to simultaneously consolidate within themselves and resist other communities. The book could be useful to anyone interested in anthropology and the structure of society, as well as laws of thought.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Enrichment: A Critique of Commodities (excerpts) <p>The authors of this book argue that Western capitalism has recently undergone a fundamental transformation that especially apparent in those countries responsible fpr European industrial primacy. There are two significant dimensions of the work: historical and analytical. The first dimension focuses on economic changes that have been observed since the late 20th century and dramatically modified the way value and wealth are created today: on one hand, the transformation characterized by deindustrialization; and, on the other, the increased exploitation of certain resources that, while not entirely new, have taken on an unprecedented importance. The second direction aims to understand how different commodities can generate transactions perceived as normal by buyers and sellers and that fit preliminary expectations to a certain degree. From a theoretical perspective, the authors deliberate pragmatic structuralism that combines social history with the analysis of cognitive competences upon which actors rely. In terms of empirical data, the authors use statistics enriched with a set of various formal and informal interviews, focusing on France as a case where the mentioned transformation is more distinctive.</p> <p>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes some excerpts from the second chapter “Toward Enrichment” where the authors define the main sources and benefits of the enrichment economy. The enrichment economy is based less on producing new objects and more on enriching existing things and places by connecting them with specific narratives.</p> Luc Boltanski, Arnaud Esquerre Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Way Out of the Matrix <p>The feature of this review is to study the properties of modern communications and relations between humans and information. An American journalist and ex-editor of The New Republic, Franklin Foer studies the origins, present, and future of new media. Starting with the meaning of their own names, global network companies claim to everyone that they are ruling the world. Social networks and even search engines collect data with ease and impunity from unsuspecting users who voluntarily publish open access information about themselves. Then, after acquiring the information they need, corporations like Google, Facebook, and Amazon use algorithms to control the behavior of a large part of the world. The review highlights the most important topics of the book: the reasons for degradation of individual taste and thought, ways corporations can follow their clients, the crisis of book publishing and professional journalism, and the importance of privacy. Foer does not spread panic; rather, he explains to the reader what problems modern information society faces. One of the main difficulties is that search engines and social networks do not allow users to filter content (despite an abundance of it) according to users’ personal interests but instead organize the output of material according to internal algorithms. Perhaps we should turn to traditional ways of comprehending the world, such as reading paper books. The Internet itself as a means of communication is not the ultimate evil but the fact that it has been turned into the only way of communication means it is relied on too extensively. As a result, the book World Without Mind by Franklin Foer offers a way to “exit the matrix” of the digital age.</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 What Do We Know About 21st Century Youth? American Teens Through the Eyes of a Psychologist <p class="text">A book written by American psychologist Jean M. Twenge iGen. Why Today's Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood—and What That Means for the Rest of Us describes the change in values, identity and behavior of adolescents born during the period from 1995 to 2012, the Internet Generation known as iGens. The book represents a good example of thorough data analysis, using the results of sociological surveys that originated in the 1960`s and covering opinions of more than 11 million Americans. Guided by such extensive empirical material, the author infers that adolescents have begun to grow up more slowly, plunge into the virtual world at the expense of reality, presume upon new media, communicate less, and show less interest in news. All that led to a degradation of knowledge and skills, a lack of sophistication, the growth of mental disorders, a lack of self-confidence, angst, and the spread of perverse attitudes towards education, work, family and money. The main reasons for such fundamental changes lie in the safer environment of iGens’ childhoods as well as their greater involvement in digital technologies and information. Accustomed to being supervised externally, iGens internally dive into virtual reality, lose interest in extracting knowledge themselves (reducing their ability to overcome obstacles or desire to take risks), and receive much less real experience. iGens are a few times less likely to meet friends, go on dates, get professional experience, drive a car, drink alcohol, read books, or keep up on the news than representatives of generations X and Y. At the same time, iGens spend twice as much time on the Internet than millennials. Uncontrollably and indiscriminately absorbing primitive and chaotic information, modern adolescents lose their integrity. This is evidenced by the growth of anxiety, mental disorders, and suicides. The example of American teenagers shows that people might lose the very abilities for which the technologies have been created (e. g. interpersonal communication, critical thinking, information awareness, creativity, personal growth, safety, etc.).</p> Anita Poplavskaya Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Behind the Scene of Soviet Runway Fashion: Capital and Position in the Field <p class="text">This paper presents an approach to describe and analyze the accumulation of specific capital in a Soviet design organization during the late Soviet period from 1968 to 1982. Compared to the Stalin and Thaw periods, the system of fashion production under Late Socialism is less explored. The functioning of regional clothing design houses which constituted a specific feature of the Soviet system of fashion production during this period is underexplored as well. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to apply Bourdieu’s theory of the field of production to Soviet fashion production. Researchers do not typically use sociological theories of production to analyze Soviet fashion. The study denotes the categories of specific capital, hierarchies, and dynamics of the field of production. The system of fashion production in the late Soviet period is considered a very particular case in a non-capitalist society. There are two components of the study. The first one reconstructs the hierarchy of the Soviet system of fashion production. The second one describes professional strategies to accumulate specific capital and to occupy a position in the field of production. The study focuses on two cases of development and presentation of clothing collections by Perm Clothing Design House during union and cluster meetings of designers from 1968 to 1969 and 1979 to 1982. The paper relies on published research on Soviet fashion history, archive documents from the Russian State Economic Archive and State Archive of Perm Territory, and in-depth interviews with former employees of the Perm Clothing Design House. The results discuss the applicability of the term of “specific capital” to the explanation of the construction processes of hierarchies in the late Soviet field of fashion production. The paper contributes to the earlier conclusions on the ambiguities of Soviet fashion policy. It also introduces the definition of “specific capital” as official representatives’ appreciation of the balance between an officially approved seasonal fashion trend and the creative search achieved by designers of a certain design house. It suggests that a weird combination of socialist and pseudo-market practices penetrated and restricted Soviet fashion production.</p> Iuliia Papushina Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Dynamics of Dissertation Industry in Russia, 2005–2015. Did New Institutional Templates Change Academic Behavior? <p>The paper introduces the notion of the “institutional template,” defined as a highly legitimate example of a certain practice to which formal mechanisms of assessing the degree of correspondence are attached. Arguably, institutional templates are currently the major vehicles through which coercive isomorphism spreads across the academic world. While correspondence measures often take form of quantitative indicators, this is not always the case, so this paper analyzes the history of regulations of dissertation production in Russia as an example of a predominantly non-quantitative template. We use three datasets covering approximately 250,000 cases of dissertation defenses in Russia between 2005 and 2015 to discover the outcomes of the template’s introduction in the dissertation industry. We show how the new regulations allowed a reduction in the number of defenses—nearly by half. However, contrary to the intentions of the template inventors, the reduction was distributed evenly between mathematics, natural sciences (presumably less affected by degree devaluation), and social sciences (the most affected). There was also no concentration of dissertation production in the top research centers and no evidence of intensified migration of degree candidates to such centers. Overall, there is no evidence that the template produced more obstacles for authors of low-quality dissertations than those of high quality. Using the data from interviews with members of dissertation councils, we argue the results of the template: first, it required enormous bureaucratic efforts to demonstrate an individual’s ability to fit into it, and, second, its inability to account for local circumstances of particular disciplines sometimes resulted in de facto negative selection.</p> Katerina Guba, Mikhail Sokolov, Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300