(Не)время взрослеть: как меняется возраст наступления дебютных биографических событий у россиян

  • Екатерина Сергеевна Митрофанова Национальный Исследовательский Университет «Высшая Школа Экономики»
Ключевые слова: взросление, поколения, Россия, возраст, стартовые события жизненного пути, демографические события, брак, партнерство, деторождение, образование, работа, отделение от родителей, анализ наступления событий, сетка Лексиса

Аннотация

Бытует мнение, что нынешняя молодежь не только не торопится взрослеть, но и вообще отказывается обретать важные биографические события, которые как-то ограничивают их свободу и предполагают приверженность своему выбору (commitment). Чтобы узнать, так ли это, мы изучили возрасты наступления шести дебютных событий жизненного пути: получение профессионального образования, первое трудоустройство, первое отделение от родителей, первое партнерство (незарегистрированные отношения с совместным проживанием), первый брак, рождение первого ребенка.

Мы сопоставили поведение шести поколений россиян, родившихся между 1930 и 1986 годами. Выборка составила 5451 человека из панельной части обследования «Родители и дети, мужчины и женщины в семье и обществе» (РиДМиЖ) по состоянию на 2011 г. Мы не только изучили медианные возрасты наступления событий и наглядно представили их на сетке Лексиса, но также оценили шансы обретения стартовых событий при помощи регрессий Кокса (event history analysis).

Было выявлено, что серьезного откладывания или отказа от социоэкономических событий не происходит: трудоустройство и отделение от родителей минимально меняют свою позицию в расписаниях жизни молодых поколений. Возраст завершения обучения отодвинулся на более поздний срок, но это связано с существенным ростом числа получающих профессиональное образование разных уровней. Возраст вступления в первое партнерство в молодых поколениях снизился до исторического минимума, став самым ранним из трех демографических событий в жизни современной молодежи. Другие два демографических события – первые браки и деторождения – действительно, откладываются молодыми поколениями, особенно мужчинами. То есть молодежь не саботирует взросление, но дебютирует в разных сферах жизни сообразно своим жизненным расписаниям и в свое время.

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Опубликован
2020-12-27
Как цитировать
Митрофанова, Е. С. (2020). (Не)время взрослеть: как меняется возраст наступления дебютных биографических событий у россиян. Демографическое обозрение, 7(4), 36-61. https://doi.org/10.17323/demreview.v7i4.12043
Раздел
Оригинальные статьи