Модели взросления разных поколений россиян

  • Екатерина Сергеевна Митрофанова Национальный Исследовательский Университет «Высшая Школа Экономики»
Ключевые слова: Россия, взросление, переход во взрослую жизнь, поколения, стартовые события жизни, демографические события, социоэкономические события, демографический переход, брачность, рождаемость, партнерство, трудоустройство, образование, отделение от родителей

Аннотация

На базе данных обследования «Родители и дети, мужчины и женщины в семье и обществе» (2011 г., 5451 человек) проведен количественный анализ наступления стартовых событий жизни, маркирующих взросление. В качестве таких событий взяты получение профессионального образования, первое трудоустройство, первое отделение от родителей, первое партнерство (незарегистрированные отношения с совместным проживанием), первый брак и рождение первого ребенка.

Результаты визуализированы на демографической сетке Лексиса, что наглядно представляет влияние исторического и институционального контекста на организацию жизненного пути индивидов. Действующие законодательные и социальные нормы задают границы вариативности сценариев взросления в каждый момент времени и определяют скорость обновления социальных практик.

Выявлены три модели перехода во взрослую жизнь в России: «советская» (характерна для поколений 1940-49, 1950-59, 1960-69 годов рождения), «переходная» (поколения 1930-39 и 1970-79 годов рождения) и «постсоветская» (поколение 1980-86 годов рождения). Сравнение моделей перехода во взрослую жизнь в России и европейских странах показало наличие конвергенции паттернов взросления между странами, а также выявило запаздывание демографического перехода в России примерно на 20-25 лет, что подтверждает предположение о стадиальности модернизационного процесса.

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Опубликован
2019-12-25
Как цитировать
Митрофанова, Е. С. (2019). Модели взросления разных поколений россиян. Демографическое обозрение, 6(4), 53-82. https://doi.org/10.17323/demreview.v6i4.10427
Раздел
Оригинальные статьи