Основная семья: предыстория и перспективы

  • Ирина Ильинична Елисеева Санкт-Петербургский Государственный экономический университет
Ключевые слова: основная семья, семейная структура, брачная пара, законодательство, несовершеннолетние дети, тип семьи, женский перевес, аборт, жилище, тенденция

Аннотация

Рассматривается траектория изменений в составе и величине российской семьи в советский период: переход от преобладания сложной семьи к преобладанию простой семьи, от многодетности к малодетности. Акцентируется воздействие государства на российскую семью через законодательство. Выделяется переход от политики расшатывания семейного уклада в
1918-1920 гг. к формированию имиджа семьи как «основной ячейки общества», вступления в брак как государственного деяния. Подчеркивается воздействие законодательства на репродуктивное поведение, прежде всего незамужних женщин, оказавшихся в ловушке традиционной морали. Отмечается существенное влияние половых диспропорций на брачность после Великой отечественной войны. Развитие российской семьи связывается с жилищными условиями и формированием рынка жилья. Среди нуклеарных семей выделяется семья «родители-дети», которая интерпретируется как основная семья с позиций демографического и социального воспроизводства, непосредственности контактов двух поколений. Подчеркивается равноправность признаков основной семьи: наличие гетерогенной брачной пары и несовершеннолетних детей. По данным Комплексного обследования уровня жизни населения 2018 г. показано, что брачные пары без детей имеют большую долю в выборочной семейной структуре, нежели брачные пары с детьми.
Так что семьи, трактуемые как основные с позиций репродуктивного потенциала, оказываются неосновными по своей представительности.

Возрастает разнообразие семей, основные семьи трансформируются, приобретая новые характеристики, не свойственные традиционным признакам семьи; трансформация затрагивает также характер супружеских и внутрисемейных отношений. Отмечаются узкие места отечественной статистики, затрудняющие анализ брачно-семейных отношений. Делается вывод об амбивалентности современного российского общества, нелинейности процесса модернизации семьи, включающего возвратные тенденции.

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Опубликован
2020-12-27
Как цитировать
Елисеева, И. И. (2020). Основная семья: предыстория и перспективы. Демографическое обозрение, 7(4), 6-35. https://doi.org/10.17323/demreview.v7i4.12042
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Оригинальные статьи