Возрастные различия здоровья и психологические ресурсы личности: ключевые теоретические концепции и результаты современных эмпирических исследований

  • Нина Львовна Русинова Социологический Институт РАН — филиал Федерального государственного бюджетного учреждения науки Федерального научно-исследовательского социологического центра Российской Академии Наук
Ключевые слова: здоровье, возрастные неравенства, психологические ресурсы личности, контекстуальные проявления, современные западные исследования

Аннотация

В современных социологических исследованиях здоровья одно из ключевых направлений связано с анализом неравенств – его состояние заметно хуже у тех, кто располагается в нижних ярусах общественной стратификации, и лучше в стратах с высоким социально-экономическим статусом. Существуют и возрастные неравенства в здоровье: его ухудшение с возрастом, в основном обусловленное естественными процессами старения организма, в немалой степени зависит и от социальных факторов, способных ускорять или замедлять эти процессы. В последние годы при анализе неравенств в здоровье кроме факторов материальной депривации, связанных с социально-экономическим статусом человека, внимание исследователей стали привлекать и социопсихологические переменные, фиксирующие устойчивость индивида к трудностям жизни и вызываемым ими стрессовым воздействиям. В статье представлен обзор западных исследований, посвященных значению психологических ресурсов личности в связи с проблемой выраженности возрастных неравенств в здоровье. Обсуждаются 2 ответвления в этой проблемной области: в одном в фокусе внимания находится вопрос о воздействии психологических ресурсов на здоровье на разных этапах жизненного пути, а во втором анализируются возрастные изменения, которые происходят с самими психологическими ресурсами человека. Описываются полученные научные факты, свидетельствующие о роли таких психологических конструктов, как способность индивида контролировать свою жизнь, личностная самооценка, уверенность в собственных силах, оптимизм, устойчивость к трудностям жизни. Отмечается, что общая картина, хотя и при возможном рассогласовании некоторых результатов, достаточно определенно указывает на важную роль личностных качеств для поддержания здоровья, особенно в старших возрастах. Работы также свидетельствуют, что психологические ресурсы меняются с возрастом, подчиняясь нелинейной зависимости. Обсуждаются перспективные для дальнейшего анализа области исследований, работы в которых только начинают разворачиваться. Наиболее обещающим представляется изучение психологической модерации и медиации возрастных различий в здоровье, а также выраженности таких эффектов в различных общественных контекстах, определяемых экономическим развитием, социальным государством и культурой.

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Опубликован
2021-12-23
Как цитировать
Русинова, Н. Л. (2021). Возрастные различия здоровья и психологические ресурсы личности: ключевые теоретические концепции и результаты современных эмпирических исследований. Демографическое обозрение, 8(4), 132-155. https://doi.org/10.17323/demreview.v8i4.13879
Раздел
Оригинальные статьи