Российская революция 1917 года сквозь призму демографической модернизации

  • Борис Миронов Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Университет
Ключевые слова: брачность, рождаемость, смертность, эффективность воспроизводства населения, регулирование рождаемости, внебрачные дети, добрачный секс, аборты, контрацепция, разводы, демографический переход

Аннотация

В позднеимперской России улучшились демографические показатели, несколько повысилась эффективность воспроизводства населения, произошла известная рационализация демографического поведения, гуманизировались внутрисемейные отношения. Но, вероятно, самое главное – у значительной части населения сексуальное, матримониальное и репродуктивное поведение дифференцировалось и получил развитие индивидуальный контроль над рождаемостью, что в демографии рассматривается в качестве критериев первого демографического перехода. Наблюдавшиеся позитивные перемены объяснялись, главным образом тем, что в демографическую революцию включились около 14% российских граждан, в основном из числа образованных и состоятельных людей, проживавших в больших городах, а также жителей западных регионов по вероисповеданию иудеев, католиков и протестантов. Преобладающая часть сельского и городского населения православного, мусульманского, языческого и других вероисповеданий – около 86% всего населения – были затронуты новыми веяниями поверхностно. Люди, активно и сознательно вовлеченные в демографический переход, изменившиеся психологически, ментально и культурно, проявляли восприимчивость к инновациям также и в социальной, политической, культурной, экономической сферах и являлись наиболее подготовленными и желающими преобразований общественной жизни на буржуазно-демократических основаниях. Их было достаточно для медленной и постепенной всеобъемлющей модернизации страны, но мало для быстрых и глубоких революционных буржуазно-демократических преобразований. Вследствие этого Революция 1917 г. оказалась преждевременной. Политические акушеры поторопились и искусственно ускорили рождение новой России. Новорожденный оказался недоношенным. В результате революция не смогла решить задачи, которые ставили ее лидеры и организаторы.

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Опубликован
2017-12-22
Как цитировать
Миронов, Б. (2017). Российская революция 1917 года сквозь призму демографической модернизации. Демографическое обозрение, 4(3), 6-58. https://doi.org/10.17323/demreview.v4i3.7316
Раздел
Историческая демография